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  • Journal article
    Barker J, Davies J, Goralczyk M, Patel S, O'Connor J, Evans J, Sharp R, Gollock M, Wood FR, Rosindell J, Bartlett C, Garner BJ, Jones D, Quigley D, Wray Bet al., 2022,

    The distribution, ecology and predicted habitat use of the Critically Endangered angelshark (Squatina squatina) in coastal waters of Wales and the central Irish Sea

    , Journal of Fish Biology, Vol: 101, Pages: 640-658, ISSN: 0022-1112

    The angelshark (Squatina squatina) has the northernmost range of any angel shark species, but there is limited information on its distribution, habitat use and ecology at higher latitudes. To address this, Angel Shark Project: Wales gathered 2231 S. squatina records and 142 anecdotal resources from fishers, coastal communities and archives. These spanned the coastal waters of Wales and the central Irish Sea and were dated from 1812 to 2020, with 97.62% of records within 11.1 km (6 nm) of the coast. Commercial, recreational and charter boat fishers provided the majority of S. squatina records (97.18%), with significantly more sightings from three decades (1970s, 1980s and 1990s) and in the months of September, June, August and July (in descending order). The coastal area between Bardsey Island and Strumble Head had the most S. squatina records (n = 1279), with notable concentrations also found in Carmarthen Bay, Conwy Bay and the Outer Severn Estuary. Species distribution models (SDM) identified four environmental variables that had significant influence on S. squatina distribution, depth, chlorophyll-a concentration, sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity, and these varied between the quarters (Q) of the year. SDM model outputs predicted a larger congruous area of suitable habitat in Q3 (3176 km2) compared to Q2 (2051 km2), with suitability along the three glacial moraines (Sarn Badrig, Sarn-y-Bwch and Sarn Cynfelyn) strongly presented. Comparison of modelled environmental variables at the location of S. squatina records for each Q identified reductions in depth and salinity, and increases in chlorophyll-a and SST when comparing Q2 or Q3 with Q1 or Q4. This shift may suggest S. squatina are making seasonal movements to shallow coastal waters in Q2 and Q3. This is supported by 23 anecdotal resources and may be driven by reproductive behaviour, as there were 85 records of S. squatina individuals ≤60 cm in the dataset, inferred as recently b

  • Journal article
    Cheng S, Jin Y, Harrison S, Quilodrán Casas C, Prentice C, Guo Y-K, Arcucci Ret al., 2022,

    Parameter flexible wildfire prediction using machine learning techniques: forward and inverse modelling

    , Remote Sensing, Vol: 14, ISSN: 2072-4292

    Parameter identification for wildfire forecasting models often relies on case-by-case tuning or posterior diagnosis/analysis, which can be computationally expensive due to the complexity of the forward prediction model. In this paper, we introduce an efficient parameter flexible fire prediction algorithm based on machine learning and reduced order modelling techniques. Using a training dataset generated by physics-based fire simulations, the method forecasts burned area at different time steps with a low computational cost. We then address the bottleneck of efficient parameter estimation by developing a novel inverse approach relying on data assimilation techniques (latent assimilation) in the reduced order space. The forward and the inverse modellings are tested on two recent large wildfire events in California. Satellite observations are used to validate the forward prediction approach and identify the model parameters. By combining these forward and inverse approaches, the system manages to integrate real-time observations for parameter adjustment, leading to more accurate future predictions.

  • Journal article
    Geci R, Willis K, Burt A, 2022,

    Gene drive designs for efficient and localisable population suppression using Y-linked editors

    <jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successful in controlling some pest species but is not practicable for many others due to the large numbers of individuals that need to be reared and released. Previous computer modelling has demonstrated that the release of males carrying a Y-linked editor that kills or sterilises female descendants could be orders of magnitude more efficient than SIT while still remaining spatially restricted, particularly if combined with an autosomal sex distorter. In principle, further gains in efficiency could be achieved by using a self-propagating double drive design, in which each of the two components (the Y-linked editor and the sex ratio distorter) boosted the transmission of the other. To better understand the expected dynamics and impact of releasing constructs of this new design, we have analysed a deterministic population genetic and population dynamic model. Our modelling demonstrates that this design can suppress a population from very low release rates, with no invasion threshold. Importantly, the design can work even if homing rates are low and sex chromosomes are silenced at meiosis, potentially expanding the range of species amenable to such control. Moreover, the predicted dynamics and impacts can be exquisitely sensitive to relatively small (e.g., 25%) changes in allele frequencies in the target population, which could be exploited for sequence-based population targeting. Analysis of published <jats:italic>Anopheles gambiae</jats:italic> genome sequences indicates that even for weakly differentiated populations with an F<jats:sub>ST</jats:sub> of 0.02 there may be thousands of suitably differentiated genomic sites that could be used to restrict the spread and impact of a release. Our proposed design, which extends an already promising development pathway based on Y-linked editors, is therefore a potentially useful addition to the menu

  • Journal article
    Jones S, Bell T, Coleman CM, Harris D, Woodward G, Worledge L, Roberts H, McElhinney L, Aegerter J, Ransome E, Savolainen Vet al., 2022,

    Testing bats in rehabilitation for SARS-CoV-2 before release into the wild

    , Conservation Science and Practice, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2578-4854

    Several studies have suggested SARS-CoV-2 originated from a viral ancestor in bats, but whether transmission occurred directly or via an intermediary host to humans remains unknown. Concerns of spillover of SARS-CoV-2 into wild bat populations are hindering bat rehabilitation and conservation efforts in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Current protocols state that animals cared for by individuals who have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 cannot be released into the wild and must be isolated to reduce the risk of transmission to wild populations. Here, we propose a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)-based protocol for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in bats, using fecal sampling. Bats from the United Kingdom were tested following suspected exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and tested negative for the virus. With current UK and international legislation, the identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection in wild animals is becoming increasingly important, and protocols such as the one developed here will help improve understanding and mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 in the future.

  • Journal article
    Sanchez AC, Jones SK, Purvis A, Estrada-Carmona N, De Palma Aet al., 2022,

    Landscape complexity and functional groups moderate the effect of diversified farming on biodiversity: A global meta-analysis

  • Journal article
    Marghoub A, Williams CJA, Leite JV, Kirby AC, Kever L, Porro LB, Barrett PM, Bertazzo S, Abzhanov A, Vickaryous M, Herrel A, Evans SE, Moazen Met al., 2022,

    Unravelling the structural variation of lizard osteoderms

    , ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, Vol: 146, Pages: 306-316, ISSN: 1742-7061
  • Journal article
    Rurangwa ML, Niyigaba P, Tobias JA, Whittaker RJet al., 2022,

    Functional and phylogenetic diversity of an agricultural matrix avifauna: The role of habitat heterogeneity in Afrotropical farmland

    , Ecology and Evolution, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2045-7758

    Varied strategies to alleviate the loss of farmland biodiversity have been tested, yet there is still insufficient evidence supporting their effectiveness, especially when considering phylogenetic and functional diversity alongside traditional taxonomic diversity metrics. This conservation challenge is accentuated in the Afrotropics by the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification for the production of cash crops and by a comparative lack of research. In this study, we assessed how farming practices influence avian phylogenetic and functional diversity. We conducted point-count surveys to assess avian diversity in monocultures of tea and mixed crop farming systems surrounding the Nyungwe rainforest in south-west Rwanda, allowing us to investigate the drivers of avian diversity at farm level. Species composition was found to be moderately different between farm types, with mixed crop farms supporting higher phylogenetic diversity than tea plantations. There were no significant seasonal differences in species composition, functional or phylogenetic diversity. Overall, functional diversity did not differ between farm types, but the dispersion of trophic-related traits was significantly higher in mixed crop farms. Both functional and phylogenetic diversity were influenced by floristic diversity, vegetation height, tree number, and elevation to varying degrees. Our results also (i) highlight the role of farmland heterogeneity (e.g., crop species composition, height, and tree cover extent) in encouraging avian functional and phylogenetic diversity in the Afrotropics and (ii) indicate that the generally negative biodiversity impacts of monoculture agriculture can be partially alleviated by extensive agroforestry with an emphasis on indigenous tree species.

  • Journal article
    Aguirre-Gutierrez J, Berenguer E, Menor IO, Bauman D, Corral-Rivas JJ, Guadalupe Nava-Miranda M, Both S, Ndong JE, Ondo FE, Bengone NN, Mihinhou V, Dalling JW, Heineman K, Figueiredo A, Gonzalez-M R, Norden N, Hurtado-M AB, Gonzalez D, Salgado-Negret B, Reis SM, Moraes de Seixas MM, Farfan-Rios W, Shenkin A, Riutta T, Girardin CAJ, Moore S, Abernethy K, Asner GP, Bentley LP, Burslem DFRP, Cernusak LA, Enquist BJ, Ewers RM, Ferreira J, Jeffery KJ, Joly CA, Marimon-Junior BH, Martin RE, Morandi PS, Phillips OL, Bennett AC, Lewis SL, Quesada CA, Marimon BS, Kissling WD, Silman M, Teh YA, White LJT, Salinas N, Coomes DA, Barlow J, Adu-Bredu S, Malhi Yet al., 2022,

    Functional susceptibility of tropical forests to climate change

    , NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 6, Pages: 878-+, ISSN: 2397-334X
  • Journal article
    Christensen AK, Piggott M, van Sebille E, van Reeuwijk M, Pawar Set al., 2022,

    Investigating microscale patchiness of motile microbes under turbulence in a simulated convective mixed layer

  • Journal article
    Parra-Sanchez E, Banks-Leite C, 2022,

    Value of human-modified forests for the conservation of canopy epiphytes

    , BIOTROPICA, Vol: 54, Pages: 958-968, ISSN: 0006-3606
  • Journal article
    Cruz-Silva E, Harrison SP, Marinova-Wolff E, Prentice ICet al., 2022,

    A new method based on surface- sample pollen data for reconstructing palaeovegetation patterns.

    , Journal of Biogeography, Vol: 49, Pages: 1381-1396, ISSN: 0305-0270

    Aim: Amongst the various techniques available to reconstruct past vegetation at regional to continental scales, biomisation has been the most widely used because it does not require an extensive modern pollen data set. However, it has well well-known limitations including its dependence on expert judgement for the assignment of pollen taxa to plant functional types (PFTs) and PFTs to biomes. Here we present a new method that combines the strengths of biomisation with those of the alternative dissimilarity-based techniques. This new technique quantifies the likelihood that a sample belongs to a given biome, and allows discrimination of non-analogue vegetation types. Location: The Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea Caspian Corridor (EMBSeCBIO) region, 28°-49°N, 20°- 62°E. Methods: Modern pollen samples assigned to biomes based on potential natural vegetation data, are used to characterize biomes according to the within-biome means and standard deviations of the abundances of each taxon. These are used to calculate a dissimilarity index between any given pollen sample and every biome, and thus assign a pollen sample to the most likely biome. We also calculate a threshold value for each biome which identifies samples that fall outside the acceptable range of likelihoods for biome assignment and hence can be used to distinguish non-analogue vegetation. We have applied the new technique to the EMBSeCBIO region to compare the performance of the new method with existing reconstructions. Results: The technique captured changes in the importance of individual taxa along environmental gradients. The balanced accuracy obtained for the EMBSeCBIO region using the new method was better than that obtained using biomisation (77% versus 65%). When the method was applied to high resolution fossil records, 70% of the evaluated entities showed more temporally stable biome assignments than obtained with the biomisation method. The technique also identifies likely non analogu

  • Journal article
    Weeks BC, O'Brien BK, Chu JJ, Claramunt S, Sheard C, Tobias JAet al., 2022,

    Morphological adaptations linked to flight efficiency and aerial lifestyle determine natal dispersal distance in birds

    , Functional Ecology, Vol: 36, Pages: 1681-1689, ISSN: 0269-8463

    Natal dispersal—the movement from birthplace to breeding location—is often considered the most significant dispersal event in an animal's lifetime. Natal dispersal distances may be shaped by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and remain poorly quantified in most groups, highlighting the need for indices that capture variation in dispersal among species.In birds, it is hypothesized that dispersal distance can be predicted by flight efficiency, which can be estimated using wing morphology. However, the use of morphological indices to predict dispersal remains contentious and the mechanistic links between flight efficiency and natal dispersal are unclear.Here, we use phylogenetic comparative models to test whether hand-wing index (HWI, a morphological proxy for wing aspect ratio) predicts natal dispersal distance across a global sample of 114 bird species. In addition, we assess whether HWI is correlated with flight usage in foraging and daily routines.We find that HWI is a strong predictor of both natal dispersal distance and a more aerial lifestyle.Our results support the use of HWI as a valid proxy for relative natal dispersal distance, and also suggest that evolutionary adaptation to aerial lifestyles is a major factor connecting flight efficiency with patterns of natal dispersal.

  • Journal article
    Cheng S, Jin Y, Harrison SP, Quilodran-Casas C, Prentice IC, Guo Y-K, Arcucci Ret al., 2022,

    Parameter flexible wildfire prediction using machine learning techniques:forward and inverse modelling

    , Remote Sensing, ISSN: 2072-4292
  • Journal article
    Iglesias-Carrasco M, Tobias JA, Duchene DA, 2022,

    Bird lineages colonizing urban habitats have diversified at high rates across deep time

    , Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol: 31, Pages: 1784-1793, ISSN: 1466-822X

    AimUrbanization exposes species to novel ecological conditions. Some species thrive in urban areas, whereas many others are excluded from these human-made environments. Previous analyses suggest that the ability to cope with rapid environmental change is associated with long-term patterns of diversification, but whether the suite of traits associated with the ability to colonize urban environments is linked to this process remains poorly understood.LocationWorld.Time periodCurrent.Major taxa studiedPasserine birds.MethodsWe applied macroevolutionary models to a large dataset of passerine birds to compare the evolutionary history of urban-tolerant species with that of urban-avoidant species. Specifically, we examined models of state-dependent speciation and extinction to assess the macroevolution of urban tolerance as a binary trait, in addition to models of quantitative trait-dependent diversification based on relative urban abundance. We also ran simulation-based model assessments to explore potential sources of bias.ResultsWe provide evidence that historically, species with traits promoting urban colonization have undergone faster diversification than urban-avoidant species, indicating that urbanization favours clades with a historical tendency towards rapid speciation or reduced extinction. In addition, we find that past transitions towards states that currently impede urban colonization by passerines have been more frequent than in the opposite direction. Furthermore, we find a portion of urban-avoidant passerines to be recent and to undergo fast diversification. All highly supported models give this result consistently.Main conclusionsUrbanization is mainly associated with the loss of lineages that are inherently more vulnerable to extinction over deep time, whereas cities tend to be colonized by less vulnerable lineages, for which urbanization might be neutral or positive in terms of longer-term diversification. Urban avoidance is associated with high rates of

  • Journal article
    Keenan TFC, Luo X, De Kauwe MG, Medlyn BE, Prentice IC, Stocker BD, Smith NG, Terrer C, Wang H, Zhang Y, Zhou Set al., 2022,

    A constraint on historic growth in global photosynthesis due to increasing CO<sub>2</sub> (Retraction of Vol 600, Pg 253, 2021)

    , NATURE, Vol: 606, Pages: 420-420, ISSN: 0028-0836
  • Journal article
    Banks-Leite C, Betts MG, Ewers RM, Orme CDL, Pigot ALet al., 2022,

    The macroecology of landscape ecology

    , Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol: 37, ISSN: 0169-5347

    One of landscape ecology's main goals is to unveil how biodiversity is impacted by habitat transformation. However, the discipline suffers from significant context dependency in observed spatial and temporal trends, hindering progress towards understanding the mechanisms driving species declines and preventing the development of accurate estimates of future biodiversity change. Here, we discuss recent evidence that populations' and species' responses to habitat change at the landscape scale are modulated by factors and processes occurring at macroecological scales, such as historical disturbance rates, distance to geographic range edges, and climatic suitability. We suggest that placing landscape ecology studies in a macroecological lens will help to explain seemingly inconsistent results and will ultimately create better predictive models to help mitigate the biodiversity crisis.

  • Journal article
    Wang H, Wang R, Harrison SP, Prentice ICet al., 2022,

    Leaf morphological traits as adaptations to multiple climate gradients

    , Journal of Ecology, Vol: 110, Pages: 1344-1355, ISSN: 0022-0477

    1. Leaf morphological traits vary systematically along climatic gradients. However, recent studies in plant functional ecology have mainly analysed quantitative traits, while numerical models of species distributions and vegetation function have focused on traits associated with resource acquisition; both ignore the wider functional significance of leaf morphology.2. A data set comprising 22 leaf morphological traits for 662 woody species from 92 sites, representing all biomes present in China, was subjected to multivariate analysis in order to identify leading dimensions of trait covariation (correspondence analysis), quantify climatic and phylogenetic contributions (canonical correspondence analysis with variation partitioning), and characterize co-occurring trait syndromes (k-means clustering) and their climatic preferences. 3. Three axes accounted for > 20% of trait variation in both evergreen and deciduous species. Moisture index, precipitation seasonality and growing-season temperature accounted for 8–10% of trait variation; family 15–32%. Microphyll or larger, mid- to dark green leaves with drip-tips in wetter climates contrasted with nanophyll or smaller glaucous leaves without drip-tips in drier climates. Thick, entire leaves in less seasonal climates contrasted with thin, marginal dissected, aromatic, and involute/revolute leaves in more seasonal climates. Thick, involute, hairy leaves in colder climates contrasted with thin leaves with marked surface structures (surface patterning) in warmer climates. Distinctive trait clusters were linked to the driest and most seasonal climates, for example the clustering of picophyll, fleshy and succulent leaves in the driest climates and leptophyll, linear, dissected, revolute or involute, and aromatic leaves in regions with highly seasonal rainfall. Several trait clusters co-occurred in wetter climates, including clusters characterised by microphyll, moderately thick, patent, and entire leaves or notop

  • Journal article
    Deere NJ, Bicknell JE, Mitchell SL, Afendy A, Baking EL, Bernard H, Chung AYC, Ewers RM, Heroin H, Joseph N, Lewis OT, Luke SH, Milne S, Fikri AH, Parrett JM, Payne M, Rossiter SJ, Vairappan CS, Vian CV, Wilkinson CL, Williamson J, Wong ABH, Slade EM, Davies ZG, Struebig MJet al., 2022,

    Riparian buffers can help mitigate biodiversity declines in oil palm agriculture

    , Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol: 20, Pages: 459-466, ISSN: 1540-9295

    Agricultural expansion is a primary driver of biodiversity decline in forested regions of the tropics. Consequently, it is important to understand the conservation value of remnant forests in production landscapes. In a tropical landscape dominated by oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), we characterized faunal communities across eight taxa occurring within riparian forest buffers, which are legally protected alongside rivers, and compared them to nearby recovering logged forest. Buffer width was the main predictor of species richness and abundance, with widths of 40–100 m on each side of the river supporting broadly equivalent levels of biodiversity as compared to logged forest. However, width responses varied markedly among taxa, and buffers often lacked forest-dependent species. Much wider buffers than are currently mandated are needed to safeguard most species. The largest biodiversity gains are achieved by increasing relatively narrow buffers. To provide optimal conservation outcomes in tropical production landscapes, we encourage policy makers to prescribe width requirements for key taxa and different landscape contexts.

  • Journal article
    Shen Y, Sweeney L, Liu M, Lopez-Saez JA, Perez-Diaz S, Luelmo-Lautenschlaeger R, Gil-Ramera E, Hoefer D, Jimenez-Moreno G, Schneider H, Prentice IC, Harrison SPet al., 2022,

    Reconstructing burnt area during the Holocene: an Iberian case study

    , Climate of the Past, Vol: 18, Pages: 1189-1201, ISSN: 1814-9324

    Charcoal accumulated in lake, bog or other anoxic sediments through time has been used to document the geographical patterns in changes in fire regimes. Such reconstructions are useful to explore the impact of climate and vegetation changes on fire during periods when human influence was less prevalent than today. However, charcoal records only provide semi-quantitative estimates of change in biomass burning. Here we derive quantitative estimates of burnt area from vegetation data in two stages. First, we relate the modern charcoal abundance to burnt area using a conversion factor derived from a generalised linear model of burnt area probability based on eight environmental predictors. Then, we establish the relationship between fossil pollen assemblages and burnt area using tolerance-weighted weighted averaging partial least-squares regression with a sampling frequency correction (fxTWA-PLS). We test this approach using the Iberian Peninsula as a case study because it is a fire-prone region with abundant pollen and charcoal records covering the Holocene. We derive the vegetation–burnt area relationship using the 31 records that have both modern and fossil charcoal and pollen data and then reconstruct palaeoburnt area for the 113 records with Holocene pollen records. The pollen data predict charcoal-derived burnt area relatively well (R2 = 0.44), and the changes in reconstructed burnt area are synchronous with known climate changes through the Holocene. This new method opens up the possibility of reconstructing changes in fire regimes quantitatively from pollen records, after regional calibration of the vegetation–burnt area relationship, in regions where pollen records are more abundant than charcoal records.

  • Journal article
    Bennett S, Girndt A, Sanchez-Tojar A, Burke T, Simons M, Schroeder Jet al., 2022,

    Evidence of Paternal Effects on Telomere Length Increases in Early Life

  • Journal article
    Haas O, Prentice IC, Harrison SP, 2022,

    Global environmental controls of wildfire burnt area, size and intensity.

    , Environmental Research Letters, Vol: 17, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1748-9326

    Fire is an important influence on the global patterns of vegetation structure and composition. Wildfire is included as a distinct process in many dynamic global vegetation models but limited current understanding of fire regimes restricts these models' ability to reproduce more than the broadest geographic patterns. Here we present a statistical analysis of the global controls of remotely sensed burnt area (BA), fire size (FS), and a derived metric related to fire intensity (FI). Separate generalized linear models were fitted to observed monthly fractional BA from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv4), median FS from the Global Fire Atlas, and median fire radiative power from the MCD14ML dataset normalized by the square root of median FS. The three models were initially constructed from a common set of 16 predictors; only the strongest predictors for each model were retained in the final models. It is shown that BA is primarily driven by fuel availability and dryness; FS by conditions promoting fire spread; and FI by fractional tree cover and road density. Both BA and FS are constrained by landscape fragmentation, whereas FI is constrained by fuel moisture. Ignition sources (lightning and human population) were positively related to BA (after accounting for road density), but negatively to FI. These findings imply that the different controls on BA, FS and FI need to be considered in process-based models. They highlight the need to include measures of landscape fragmentation as well as fuel load and dryness, and to pay close attention to the controls of fire spread.

  • Journal article


    , Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 15-28, ISSN: 0253-1933
  • Journal article

    International live insect trade: a survey of stakeholders

    , Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 29-65, ISSN: 0253-1933

    There are significant numbers of transboundary shipments of live insects for pollination, pest management, industrialprocesses, research and other uses, but data collection and analysis have proved difficult. The World Organisation forAnimal Health and Collectif TIS (Technique de l’Insecte Stérile), a French think tank, carried out a stakeholder surveyto understand the nature of the live insect trade and potential challenges to safety and efficiency. Target respondentshad experience in the areas of biocontrol, sterile insect technique, entomological research and regulatory affairs.Although the survey was sent globally, the responses were unintentionally biased towards Europe, where interest ishigh, since this region is developing a comprehensive framework to promote the use of beneficial insects to replacepesticides.The survey also explored respondents’ knowledge of several international agreements on the movement and riskmanagement of beneficial or invasive insects. Knowledge of the various regulations was generally poor, and respondents highlighted a perceived lack of clarity regarding live insect shipments in the existing international regulationsand guidelines. Almost two-thirds of participants reported reluctance by carriers to accept live insects for shipment,and three-quarters described occasional to systematic delays that resulted in a reduction of quality or viability. Somerespondents reported that they instead hand-carry live insects, mostly in small quantities.Participants described being directly involved in trade covering 70 species of live insects and ticks transportedamong 37 countries, with volumes ranging from fewer than ten insects to over a million per shipment. Of these, 30%were potential vectors of pathogens to humans or animals, 42% were potential plant pest species (including someused for biocontrol), and 17% were classical biocontrol agents.The results of this survey begin to define the current scope, scale and issues for t

  • Journal article

    Issues and gaps in international guidance and national regulatory systems affecting international live insect trade

    , Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 198-210, ISSN: 0253-1933

    International trade in live insects involves the shipping of many different species, for various purposes, with a varietyof handling requirements regulated by numerous authorities with varying objectives. The diversity of factors at playhas both created and been subject to a complex regulatory landscape. A review of global production, shipping and useexperiences from a range of perspectives has shown gaps and inconsistencies in international guidance and nationalimplementation. Private carriers add another layer of uncertainty that is disproportionate to risks, resulting in variablepractices and charges.Many benefits can come from international trade in insects, including pollinator services, control of pests and of disease vectors, and enhanced international scientific research and innovation. These benefits will be better achievedthrough a more evidence-based and efficient approach to regulating trade. This change in approach will in turn require an improved and widely accepted risk-management landscape for insect trade.

  • Journal article

    Opportunities and recommendations for improved international shipment of live insects

    , Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 228-250, ISSN: 0253-1933

    While the information on live insect shipments provided in this thematic issue of the Scientific and Technical Reviewcould not be exhaustive, it clearly represents a broad variety of trade, of substantial value, involving many stakeholdersthroughout the world. The contributions to this issue demonstrate that most of the trade in insects is carried out safelyand efficiently. The concerns related to shipping insects described within this issue fall broadly into four categories:risks to human, animal and environmental health; delays and loss of quality; refusal of carriage; and high and variablecosts. Some opportunities for improvements to insect shipping for diverse stakeholders are shown across these fourareas of concern, with specific recommendations and a general call for further collaboration among stakeholders.

  • Journal article

    Can there be a common, risk-based framework for decisions around live insect trade?

    , Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 219-227, ISSN: 0253-1933

    A network of scientists involved in shipment of live insects has met and generated a series of articles on issues relatedto live insect transport. The network is diverse, covering large-scale commercial interests, government operated areawide control programmes, biomedical research and many smaller applications, in research, education and privateuses. Many insect species have a record of safe transport, pose minimal risks and are shipped frequently betweencountries. The routine shipments of the most frequently used insect model organism for biomedical research,Drosophila melanogaster, is an example. Successful large-scale shipments from commercial biocontrol and pollinatorsuppliers also demonstrate precedents for low-risk shipment categories, delivered in large volumes to high qualitystandards. Decision makers need access to more information (publications or official papers) that details actual risksfrom the insects themselves or their possible contaminants, and should propose proportionate levels of management.There may be harm to source environments when insects are collected directly from the wild, and there may be harm and Technical Review 41 (1) 2022 220to receiving environments. Several risk frameworks include insects and various international coordinating bodies,with experience of guidance on relevant risks, exist. All stakeholders would benefit from an integrated overview ofguidance for insect shipping, with reference to types of risk and categories of magnitude, without trying for a singleapproach requiring universal agreement. Proposals for managing uncertainty and lack of data for smaller or infrequent shipments, for example, must not disrupt trade in large volumes of live insects, which are already supportingstrategic objectives in several sectors.

  • Journal article
    Lembrechts JJ, van den Hoogen J, Aalto J, Ashcroft MB, De Frenne P, Kemppinen J, Kopecky M, Luoto M, Maclean IMD, Crowther TW, Bailey JJ, Haesen S, Klinges DH, Niittynen P, Scheffers BR, Van Meerbeek K, Aartsma P, Abdalaze O, Abedi M, Aerts R, Ahmadian N, Ahrends A, Alatalo JM, Alexander JM, Allonsius CN, Altman J, Ammann C, Andres C, Andrews C, Ardo J, Arriga N, Arzac A, Aschero V, Assis RL, Assmann JJ, Bader MY, Bahalkeh K, Barancok P, Barrio IC, Barros A, Barthel M, Basham EW, Bauters M, Bazzichetto M, Marchesini LB, Bell MC, Benavides JC, Benito Alonso JL, Berauer BJ, Bjerke JW, Bjork RG, Bjorkman MP, Bjornsdottir K, Blonder B, Boeckx P, Boike J, Bokhorst S, Brum BNS, Bruna J, Buchmann N, Buysse P, Camargo JL, Campoe OC, Candan O, Canessa R, Cannone N, Carbognani M, Carnicer J, Casanova-Katny A, Cesarz S, Chojnicki B, Choler P, Chown SL, Cifuentes EF, Ciliak M, Contador T, Convey P, Cooper EJ, Cremonese E, Curasi SR, Curtis R, Cutini M, Dahlberg CJ, Daskalova GN, Angel de Pablo M, Della Chiesa S, Dengler J, Deronde B, Descombes P, Di Cecco V, Di Musciano M, Dick J, Dimarco RD, Dolezal J, Dorrepaal E, Dusek J, Eisenhauer N, Eklundh L, Erickson TE, Erschbamer B, Eugster W, Ewers RM, Exton DA, Fanin N, Fazlioglu F, Feigenwinter I, Fenu G, Ferlian O, Fernandez Calzado MR, Fernandez-Pascual E, Finckh M, Higgens RF, Forte TGW, Freeman EC, Frei ER, Fuentes-Lillo E, Garcia RA, Garcia MB, Geron C, Gharun M, Ghosn D, Gigauri K, Gobin A, Goded I, Goeckede M, Gottschall F, Goulding K, Govaert S, Graae BJ, Greenwood S, Greiser C, Grelle A, Guenard B, Guglielmin M, Guillemot J, Haase P, Haider S, Halbritter AH, Hamid M, Hammerle A, Hampe A, Haugum S, Hederova L, Heinesch B, Helfter C, Hepenstrick D, Herberich M, Herbst M, Hermanutz L, Hik DS, Hoffren R, Homeier J, Hortnagl L, Hoye TT, Hrbacek F, Hylander K, Iwata H, Jackowicz-Korczynski MA, Jactel H, Jarveoja J, Jastrzebowski S, Jentsch A, Jimenez JJ, Jonsdottir IS, Jucker T, Jump AS, Juszczak R, Kanka R, Kaspar V, Kazakis Get al., 2022,

    Global maps of soil temperature

    , Global Change Biology, Vol: 28, Pages: 3110-3144, ISSN: 1354-1013

    Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km2 resolution for 0–5 and 5–15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km2 pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (−0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecolog

  • Journal article
    Alif Ž, Dunning J, Chik HYJ, Burke T, Schroeder Jet al., 2022,

    What is the best fitness measure in wild populations? A case study on the power of short-term fitness proxies to predict reproductive value

    , PLoS One, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1932-6203

    Fitness is at the core of evolutionary theory, but it is difficult to measure accurately. One way to measure long-term fitness is by calculating the individual's reproductive value, which represents the expected number of allele copies an individual passes on to distant future generations. However, this metric of fitness is scarcely used because the estimation of individual's reproductive value requires long-term pedigree data, which is rarely available in wild populations where following individuals from birth to death is often impossible. Wild study systems therefore use short-term fitness metrics as proxies, such as the number of offspring produced. This study compared two frequently used short-term metrics for fitness obtained at different offspring life stages (eggs, hatchlings, fledglings and recruits), and compared their ability to predict reproductive values derived from the genetic pedigree of a wild passerine bird population. We used twenty years of precise field observations and a near-complete genetic pedigree to calculate reproductive success, individual growth rate and de-lifed fitness as lifetime fitness measures, and as annual de-lifed fitness. We compared the power of these metrics to predict reproductive values and lineage survival to the end of the study period. The three short-term fitness proxies predict the reproductive values and lineage survival only when measured at the recruit stage. There were no significant differences between the different fitness proxies at the same offspring stages in predicting the reproductive values and lineage survival. Annual fitness at one year old predicted reproductive values equally well as lifetime de-lifed fitness. However, none of the short-term fitness proxies were strongly associated with the reproductive values. The commonly used short-term fitness proxies best predict long-term fitness when measured at recruitment stage. Thus, because lifetime fitness measured at recruit stage and annual fitness in the

  • Journal article
    Kordas RL, Pawar S, Kontopoulos D-G, Woodward G, O'Gorman EJet al., 2022,

    Metabolic plasticity can amplify ecosystem responses to global warming

  • Journal article
    Cavender-Bares J, Nelson E, Meireles JE, Lasky J, Miteva DA, Nowak D, Pearse W, Helmus M, Zanne AE, Fagan W, otherset al., 2022,

    The hidden value of trees: quantifying the ecosystem services of tree lineages and their major threats across the continental US

    , PLoS

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