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Journal articleJamshidiha M, Lanyon-Hogg T, Sutherell C, et al., 2021,
Identification of the first structurally validated covalent ligands of the small GTPase RAB27A, RSC Medicinal Chemistry, Vol: 13, Pages: 150-155, ISSN: 2632-8682
Rab27A is a small GTPase, which mediates transport and docking of secretory vesicles at the plasma membrane via protein–protein interactions (PPIs) with effector proteins. Rab27A promotes the growth and invasion of multiple cancer types such as breast, lung and pancreatic, by enhancing secretion of chemokines, metalloproteases and exosomes. The significant role of Rab27A in multiple cancer types and the minor role in adults suggest that Rab27A may be a suitable target to disrupt cancer metastasis. Similar to many GTPases, the flat topology of the Rab27A-effector PPI interface and the high affinity for GTP make it a challenging target for inhibition by small molecules. Reported co-crystal structures show that several effectors of Rab27A interact with the Rab27A SF4 pocket (‘WF-binding pocket’) via a conserved tryptophan–phenylalanine (WF) dipeptide motif. To obtain structural insight into the ligandability of this pocket, a novel construct was designed fusing Rab27A to part of an effector protein (fRab27A), allowing crystallisation of Rab27A in high throughput. The paradigm of KRas covalent inhibitor development highlights the challenge presented by GTPase proteins as targets. However, taking advantage of two cysteine residues, C123 and C188, that flank the WF pocket and are unique to Rab27A and Rab27B among the >60 Rab family proteins, we used the quantitative Irreversible Tethering (qIT) assay to identify the first covalent ligands for native Rab27A. The binding modes of two hits were elucidated by co-crystallisation with fRab27A, exemplifying a platform for identifying suitable lead fragments for future development of competitive inhibitors of the Rab27A-effector interaction interface, corroborating the use of covalent libraries to tackle challenging targets.
Journal articleCoupland CE, Andrei SA, Ansell TB, et al., 2021,
Structure, mechanism, and inhibition of Hedgehog acyltransferase, Molecular Cell, Vol: 81, Pages: 5025-+, ISSN: 1097-2765
The Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) morphogen pathway is fundamental for embryonic development and stem cell maintenance and is implicated in various cancers. A key step in signaling is transfer of a palmitate group to the SHH N terminus, catalyzed by the multi-pass transmembrane enzyme Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT). We present the high-resolution cryo-EM structure of HHAT bound to substrate analog palmityl-coenzyme A and a SHH-mimetic megabody, revealing a heme group bound to HHAT that is essential for HHAT function. A structure of HHAT bound to potent small-molecule inhibitor IMP-1575 revealed conformational changes in the active site that occlude substrate binding. Our multidisciplinary analysis provides a detailed view of the mechanism by which HHAT adapts the membrane environment to transfer an acyl chain across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. This structure of a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) superfamily member provides a blueprint for other protein-substrate MBOATs and a template for future drug discovery.
Journal articleKallemeijn W, Lanyon-Hogg T, Panyain N, et al., 2021,
Proteome-wide analysis of protein lipidation using chemical probes: in-gel fluorescence visualisation, identification and quantification of N-myristoylation, N- and S-acylation, Ocholesterylation, S-farnesylation and S-geranylgeranylation, Nature Protocols, Vol: 16, Pages: 5083-5122, ISSN: 1750-2799
Protein lipidation is one of the most widespread post-translational modifications (PTMs) found in nature, regulating protein function, structure and subcellular localization. Lipid transferases and their substrate proteins are also attracting increasing interest as drug targets because of their dysregulation in many disease states. However, the inherent hydrophobicity and potential dynamic nature of lipid modifications makes them notoriously challenging to detect by many analytical methods. Chemical proteomics provides a powerful approach to identify and quantify these diverse protein modifications by combining bespoke chemical tools for lipidated protein enrichment with quantitative mass spectrometry–based proteomics. Here, we report a robust and proteome-wide approach for the exploration of five major classes of protein lipidation in living cells, through the use of specific chemical probes for each lipid PTM. In-cell labeling of lipidated proteins is achieved by the metabolic incorporation of a lipid probe that mimics the specific natural lipid, concomitantly wielding an alkyne as a bio-orthogonal labeling tag. After incorporation, the chemically tagged proteins can be coupled to multifunctional ‘capture reagents’ by using click chemistry, allowing in-gel fluorescence visualization or enrichment via affinity handles for quantitative chemical proteomics based on label-free quantification (LFQ) or tandem mass-tag (TMT) approaches. In this protocol, we describe the application of lipid probes for N-myristoylation, N- and S-acylation, O-cholesterylation, S-farnesylation and S-geranylgeranylation in multiple cell lines to illustrate both the workflow and data obtained in these experiments. We provide detailed workflows for method optimization, sample preparation for chemical proteomics and data processing. A properly trained researcher (e.g., technician, graduate student or postdoc) can complete all steps from optimizing metabolic labeling to data pr
Journal articleSchlott AC, Knuepfer E, Green JL, et al., 2021,
Inhibition of protein N-myristoylation blocks Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic development, egress and invasion, PLoS Biology, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1544-9173
We have combined chemical biology and genetic modification approaches to investigate the importance of protein myristoylation in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Parasite treatment during schizogony in the last 10 to 15 hours of the erythrocytic cycle with IMP-1002, an inhibitor of N-myristoyl transferase (NMT), led to a significant blockade in parasite egress from the infected erythrocyte. Two rhoptry proteins were mislocalized in the cell, suggesting that rhoptry function is disrupted. We identified 16 NMT substrates for which myristoylation was significantly reduced by NMT inhibitor (NMTi) treatment, and, of these, 6 proteins were substantially reduced in abundance. In a viability screen, we showed that for 4 of these proteins replacement of the N-terminal glycine with alanine to prevent myristoylation had a substantial effect on parasite fitness. In detailed studies of one NMT substrate, glideosome-associated protein 45 (GAP45), loss of myristoylation had no impact on protein location or glideosome assembly, in contrast to the disruption caused by GAP45 gene deletion, but GAP45 myristoylation was essential for erythrocyte invasion. Therefore, there are at least 3 mechanisms by which inhibition of NMT can disrupt parasite development and growth: early in parasite development, leading to the inhibition of schizogony and formation of "pseudoschizonts," which has been described previously; at the end of schizogony, with disruption of rhoptry formation, merozoite development and egress from the infected erythrocyte; and at invasion, when impairment of motor complex function prevents invasion of new erythrocytes. These results underline the importance of P. falciparum NMT as a drug target because of the pleiotropic effect of its inhibition.
Journal articleGoya Grocin A, Kallemeijn W, Tate E, 2021,
Targeting methionine aminopeptidase 2 in cancer, obesity and autoimmunity, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, Vol: 42, Pages: 870-882, ISSN: 0165-6147
For over three decades, methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) has been a tentative drug target for the treatment of cancer, obesity, and autoimmune diseases. Currently, no MetAP2 inhibitors (MetAP2i) have reached the clinic yet, despite considerable investment by major pharmaceutical companies. Here, we summarize the key series of MetAP2i developed to date and discuss their clinical development, progress, and issues. We coalesce the currently disparate knowledge regarding MetAP2i mechanism of action and discuss discrepancies across varied studies. Finally, we highlight the current knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to enable successful development of MetAP2 inhibitors in clinical settings.
Journal articlePanyain N, Godinat A, Thawani AR, et al., 2021,
Activity-based protein profiling reveals deubiquitinase and aldehyde dehydrogenase targets of a cyanopyrrolidine probe, RSC Medicinal Chemistry, Vol: 12, Pages: 1935-1943, ISSN: 2632-8682
Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a potential drug target in various cancers, and liver and lung fibrosis. However, bona fide functions and substrates of UCHL1 remain poorly understood. Herein, we report the characterization of UCHL1 covalent inhibitor MT16-001 based on a thiazole cyanopyrrolidine scaffold. In combination with chemical proteomics, a closely related activity-based probe (MT16-205) was used to generate a comprehensive quantitative profile for on- and off-targets at endogenous cellular abundance. Both compounds are selective for UCHL1 over other DUBs in intact cells but also engage a range of other targets with good selectivity over the wider proteome, including aldehyde dehydrogenases, redox-sensitive Parkinson’s disease related protein PARK7, and glutamine amidotransferase. Taken together, these results underline the importance of robust profiling of activity-based probes as chemical tools and highlight the cyanopyrrolidine warhead as a versatile platform for liganding diverse classes of protein with reactive cysteine residues which can be used for further inhibitor screening, and as a starting point for inhibitor development.
Journal articleKennedy C, Goya Grocin A, Kovacic T, et al., 2021,
A probe for NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 identifies carbonic anhydrase 2 as a novel target, ACS Chemical Biology, Vol: 16, Pages: 982-990, ISSN: 1554-8929
Inhibition of inflammasome and pyroptotic pathways are promising strategies for clinical treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. MCC950, a potent inhibitor of the NLR-family inflammasome pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) protein, has shown encouraging results in animal models for a range of conditions; however, until now, no off-targets have been identified. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and application of a novel photoaffinity alkyne-tagged probe for MCC950 (IMP2070) which shows direct engagement with NLRP3 and inhibition of inflammasome activation in macrophages. Affinity-based chemical proteomics in live macrophages identified several potential off-targets, including carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) as a specific target of IMP2070, and independent cellular thermal proteomic profiling revealed stabilization of CA2 by MCC950. MCC950 displayed noncompetitive inhibition of CA2 activity, confirming carbonic anhydrase as an off-target class for this compound. These data highlight potential biological mechanisms through which MCC950 and derivatives may exhibit off-target effects in preclinical or clinical studies.
Journal articleLovell S, Zhang L, Kryza T, et al., 2021,
A suite of activity-based probes to dissect the KLK activome in drug-resistant prostate cancer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 143, Pages: 8911-8924, ISSN: 0002-7863
Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a family of secreted serine proteases, which form a network (the KLK activome) with an important role in proteolysis and signaling. In prostate cancer (PCa), increased KLK activity promotes tumor growth and metastasis through multiple biochemical pathways, and specific quantification and tracking of changes in the KLK activome could contribute to validation of KLKs as potential drug targets. Herein we report a technology platform based on novel activity-based probes (ABPs) and inhibitors enabling simultaneous orthogonal analysis of KLK2, KLK3, and KLK14 activity in hormone-responsive PCa cell lines and tumor homogenates. Importantly, we identifed a significant decoupling of KLK activity and abundance and suggest that KLK proteolysis should be considered as an additional parameter, along with the PSA blood test, for accurate PCa diagnosis and monitoring. Using selective inhibitors and multiplexed fluorescent activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), we dissect the KLK activome in PCa cells and show that increased KLK14 activity leads to a migratory phenotype. Furthermore, using biotinylated ABPs, we show that active KLK molecules are secreted into the bone microenvironment by PCa cells following stimulation by osteoblasts suggesting KLK-mediated signaling mechanisms could contribute to PCa metastasis to bone. Together our findings show that ABPP is a powerful approach to dissect dysregulation of the KLK activome as a promising and previously underappreciated therapeutic target in advanced PCa.
Journal articleLanyon-Hogg T, Ritzefeld M, Zhang L, et al., 2021,
Photochemical probe identification of the small-molecule binding site in a mammalian membrane-bound O-acyltransferase, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol: 60, Pages: 13542-13547, ISSN: 1433-7851
The mammalian membrane‐bound O ‐acyltransferase (MBOAT) superfamily is involved in biological processes including growth, development and appetite sensing. MBOATs are attractive drug targets in cancer and obesity; however, information on the binding site and molecular mechanisms underlying small‐molecule inhibition is elusive. This study reports rational development of a photochemical probe to interrogate a novel small‐molecule inhibitor binding site in the human MBOAT Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT). Structure‐activity relationship investigation identified single enantiomer IMP‐1575 , the most potent HHAT inhibitor reported to‐date, and guided design of photocrosslinking probes that maintained HHAT‐inhibitory potency. Photocrosslinking and proteomic sequencing of HHAT delivered identification of the first small‐molecule binding site in a mammalian MBOAT. Topology and homology data suggested a potential mechanism for HHAT inhibition which was confirmed via kinetic analysis. Our results provide an optimal HHAT tool inhibitor IMP‐1575 ( K i = 38 nM) and a strategy for mapping small molecule interaction sites in MBOATs.
Journal articleKryza T, Khan T, Lovell S, et al., 2021,
Substrate-biased activity-based probes identify proteases that cleave receptor CDCP1, Nature Chemical Biology, Vol: 17, Pages: 776-783, ISSN: 1552-4450
CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) is an oncogenic orphan transmembrane receptor and a promising target for the detection and treatment of cancer. Extracellular proteolysis of CDCP1 by poorly defined mechanisms induces pro-metastatic signaling. We describe a new approach for the rapid identification of proteases responsible for key proteolytic events using a substrate-biased activity-based probe (sbABP) that incorporates a substrate cleavage motif grafted onto a peptidyl diphenyl phosphonate warhead for specific target protease capture, isolation and identification. Using a CDCP1-biased probe, we identify urokinase (uPA) as the master regulator of CDCP1 proteolysis, which acts both by directly cleaving CDCP1 and by activating CDCP1-cleaving plasmin. We show that coexpression of uPA and CDCP1 is strongly predictive of poor disease outcome across multiple cancers and demonstrate that uPA-mediated CDCP1 proteolysis promotes metastasis in disease-relevant preclinical in vivo models. These results highlight CDCP1 cleavage as a potential target to disrupt cancer and establish sbABP technology as a new approach to identify disease-relevant proteases.
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