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  • Conference paper
    Long Q, Merrifield R, Xu X, Firmin D, Kilner P, Yang Get al., 2003,

    Intra-ventricular blood flow simulation with patient specific geometry

    , 4th International IEEE EMBS Special Topic Conference on Information Technology Applications in Biomedicine

    This study demonstrates a subject specific approach for simulating blood flow within a left ventricle (LV) by a combined analysis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Time dependent LV morphology and wall movements are measured by 3D multi-slice MRI. The information is then used to build numerical meshes for CFD simulation which provides detailed 3D LV velocity and pressure distributions in the LV cavity. Issues related to mesh generation and the prescription of valvular boundary conditions are also discussed. The predicted flow patterns are compared to that of the published MR measurements, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • Conference paper
    Papathanasopoulou P, Zhao SZ, Kohler U, Robertson MB, Long Q, Hoskins P, Xu XY, Marshall Iet al., 2003,

    MRI measurement of time-resolved wall shear stress vectors in a carotid bifurcation model, and comparison with CFD predictions

    , 10th Annual Meeting of the International-Society-for-Magnetic-Resonance-in-Medicine, Publisher: JOHN WILEY & SONS INC, Pages: 153-162, ISSN: 1053-1807
  • Journal article
    Glor FP, Long Q, Hughes AD, Augst AD, Ariff B, Thom SAM, Verdonck PR, Xu XYet al., 2003,

    Reproducibility study of magnetic resonance image-based computational fluid dynamics prediction of carotid bifurcation flow

    , ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 31, Pages: 142-151, ISSN: 0090-6964
  • Conference paper
    Ricard F, Brechtelsbauer C, Lawrence C, Xu Y, Pannier Aet al., 2003,

    Application of electrical resistance tomography technology to pharmaceutical processes

    , Pages: 701-706

    Recent developments in the use of non-intrusive, electrical measurements to interrogate mixing processes in batch vessels have triggered a joint GSK/Imperial College project aimed at assessing the applicability of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) to pharmaceutical process development. A jacketed 3.5 L glass reactor was fitted with 64 platinum sensors arranged on 4 planes and linked to an ITS P2000 data acquisition system. Several vessel/stirrer configurations aimed at mimicking typical plant reactor geometries were investigated in connection with typical process scenarios in the pharmaceutical industry. Variations in local and bulk conductivity measurements were monitored, and the data obtained were compared with spectroscopic on-line monitoring information as well as kinetic and computational fluid dynamics modelling results. Very encouraging results were achieved for model and industrial processes. This approach shows promise for on-line control of process mixing performance as well as efficiency evaluation and optimisation of reactor geometries. This allows us to conclude that ERT is a valuable tool for the development of robust manufacturing processes for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

  • Journal article
    Augst AD, Barratt DC, Hughes AD, Thom SAM, Xu XYet al., 2003,

    Various issues relating to computational fluid dynamics simulations of carotid bifurcation flow based on models reconstructed from three-dimensional ultrasound images

  • Conference paper
    Glor FP, Ariff B, Augst AD, Barratt DC, Hughes AD, Thom SAM, Verdonck P, Xu XYet al., 2003,

    3D ultrasound-based CFD for carotid flow prediction: a reproducibility study

    , 2nd MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 1701-1704
  • Journal article
    Lee KW, Xu XY, 2002,

    Modelling of flow and wall behaviour in a mildly stenosed tube

    , MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS, Vol: 24, Pages: 575-586, ISSN: 1350-4533
  • Conference paper
    Ariff B, O'Neill A, Xu XY, Sever PS, Stanton AV, Hughes AD, Thom SMet al., 2002,

    Divergent effects on cardiac and carotid vascular remodelling in hypertensive subjects treated with candesartan cilexitil & atenolol.

    , 7th Annual Meeting of the European-Council-for-Blood-Pressure-and-Cardiovascular-Research, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, Pages: 582-582, ISSN: 0194-911X
  • Conference paper
    Glor FP, Long Q, Hughes AD, Augst AD, Ariff B, Thom SAM, Verdonck P, Xu XYet al., 2002,

    MR based CFD cardiovascular modelling: a reproducibility study on carotid blood flow

    , 7th Annual Meeting of the European-Council-for-Blood-Pressure-and-Cardiovascular-Research, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, Pages: 582-582, ISSN: 0194-911X
  • Conference paper
    Augst AD, Barratt DC, Hughes AD, Thom SA, Xu XYet al., 2002,

    CFD modeling of carotid bifurcation blood flow using 3D ultrasound

    , 7th Annual Meeting of the European-Council-for-Blood-Pressure-and-Cardiovascular-Research, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, Pages: 571-571, ISSN: 0194-911X
  • Journal article
    Zhao SZ, Ariff B, Long Q, Hughes AD, Thom SA, Stanton AV, Xu XYet al., 2002,

    Inter-individual variations in wall shear stress and mechanical stress distributions at the carotid artery bifurcation of healthy humans

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 35, Pages: 1367-1377, ISSN: 0021-9290
  • Journal article
    Ariff B, Stanton A, Barratt D, Augst A, Glor F, Poulter N, Sever P, Xu Y, Hughes A, Thom SAet al., 2002,

    Comparison of the effects of antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin II blockade and beta-blockade on carotid wall structure and haemodynamics: protocol and baseline demographics

  • Journal article
    Starmans-Kool MJ, Stanton AV, Zhao SZ, Xu XY, Thom SAM, Hughes ADet al., 2002,

    Measurement of hemodynamics in human carotid artery using ultrasound and computational fluid dynamics

    , JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 92, Pages: 957-961, ISSN: 8750-7587
  • Journal article
    King E, Xu XY, Hughes AD, Long Q, Thom SA, Parker KHet al., 2002,

    Quantification of the non-planarity of the human carotid bifurcation

    , BIORHEOLOGY, Vol: 39, Pages: 419-424, ISSN: 0006-355X
  • Journal article
    Long Q, Xu XY, Kohler U, Robertson MB, Marshall I, Hoskins Pet al., 2002,

    Quantitative comparison of CFD predicted and MRI measured velocity fields in a carotid bifurcation phantom

    , BIORHEOLOGY, Vol: 39, Pages: 467-474, ISSN: 0006-355X
  • Journal article
    Köhler U, Marshall I, Robertson MB, Long Q, Xu XY, Hoskins PRet al., 2001,

    MRI measurement of wall shear stress vectors in bifurcation models and comparison with CFD predictions.

    , J Magn Reson Imaging, Vol: 14, Pages: 563-573, ISSN: 1053-1807

    Steady fluid flow was studied in a simple bifurcation model and in a physiologically realistic model of the human carotid bifurcation. Wall shear stress (WSS) vectors were calculated from phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of the velocity field. Velocity measurements in the inflow regions were also used as boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of WSS, which were compared with those derived from MRI alone. In regions of well-behaved flow, MRI and CFD estimates of WSS were in good general agreement. In regions of disturbed flow, for example near the bifurcation, the quality of the MRI measurements was sufficient for reliable calculation of WSS vectors when a sensitive surface coil was used. The combination of MRI and CFD would seem to be a powerful technique for the investigation of flow phenomena.

  • Journal article
    Augst AD, Barratt DC, Hughes AD, Thom SAM, Xu XYet al., 2001,

    CFD model of a human carotid artery bifurcation reconstructed from 3D ultrasound data

    , HYPERTENSION, Vol: 38, Pages: 977-977, ISSN: 0194-911X
  • Journal article
    Long Q, Xu XY, Ramnarine KV, Hoskins Pet al., 2001,

    Numerical investigation of physiologically realistic pulsatile flow through arterial stenosis

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 34, Pages: 1229-1242, ISSN: 0021-9290
  • Journal article
    Zhao SZ, Zambanini A, Long Q, Xu XY, Hughes AD, Thom SAet al., 2000,

    Difference in anatomical features of the femoral artery between male and female

    , HYPERTENSION, Vol: 36, Pages: 666-666, ISSN: 0194-911X
  • Journal article
    Xu XY, Zhao SZ, Ariff B, Long Q, Hughes AD, Thorn SA, Stanton AVet al., 2000,

    Shear stress and mechanical forces in the walls of carotid arteries

    , HYPERTENSION, Vol: 36, Pages: 664-664, ISSN: 0194-911X

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