Our research is based on the application of numerical methods to delineate the solutions to practical transport phenomena problems. Our group specialises in application of engineering principles to answer questions related to pathophysiological blood flow, drug delivery, and biomechanical analyses of blood vessels, design and optimization of bioreactors, and membrane separation processes. researchInfographic showing the Xu Group research streams.


Current Projects

"Computational analysis of the hemodynamic performance of novel endovascular and surgical procedures for complex aortic diseases"

Research student: Yu Zhu.

"Development of an integrated clinical imaging and computational modelling workflow for non-invasive assessment of hemodynamics in pulmonary hypertension - towards a digital twin."

Research Associate: Chloe Armour.

"Mathematical modelling of nanoparticle transport through tumours for application in radiotherapy"

Research student: George Caddy.

"Multiscale modelling of valve thrombosis following bioprosthetic aortic valve implantation." 

Research student: Zhongjie Yin.

"Predicting aortic growth and disease progression in Type B aortic dissection." 

Research student: Kaihong Wang.

"Multiscale modelling of thrombolytic therapies for the treatment of ischemic stroke." 

Research student: Yilin Yang.

"Evaluate the impact of myocardial trabeculae on cardiac function through hydrodynamic effects." 

Research student: Sihan Jiang.

"AI-Assisted Biomechanics Modelling of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair." 

Research student: Binghuan Li.


Past Projects

“Modelling of reverse osmosis membrane process and transport phenomena for performance analysis and optimisation”

A predictive model for an overall RO process will be developed by understanding transport phenomena of water and solute present inside a spiral wound RO membrane module using a programming language (MATLAB), commercial CFD (COMSOL) and flowsheeting software (Aspen HYSYS/gPROMS). Based on the developed model, the overall RO system will be optimised in order to improve its performance, energy efficiency and cost.

Research student: Boram Gu.

"Patient-specific assessment of hemodynamic performance of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)"

Research student: Selene Pirola.

"Development of a multiphysics model for focused ultrasound-mediated drug delivery to brain tumour"

Research student: Yu Huang.

"Multi-scale modelling of drug delivery to solid tumors"

Research student: Moath Alamer.

“Predicting thrombus formation in Type B aortic dissection”

The outcomes of patients affected by Type B aortic dissection and the effectiveness of treatments are affected by the formation of thrombi in the false lumen. The aim of this project is to develop a mathematical model to predict thrombosis in aortic dissection based on the analysis of hemodynamic parameters. Such model will permit to gain better insight in the development and progression of aortic dissection, and will provide powerful information to predict future evolutions and optimize treatments.

Research student: Claudia Menichini.

"Evaluation of carotid artery stents by using combined ultrasound and OCT imaging for patient-specific analysis"

Research student: Nasrul Hadi Johari.

“In-vivo Assessment of The Hemodynamic Performance of Different Aortic Valve and Root Prostheses Using 4D-Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computational Modelling”

Research Associate: Dr. Zhuo Cheng.

“Analysis of haemodynamic forces in fenestrated and branched stent-grafts for abdominal aortic aneurysms”

The primary objective of this project is to elucidate the role of haemodynamics and associated forces in determining the durability of fenestrated and branched stent-grafts for Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR). Research tools employed in this study include amalgamation of clinical image processing (CT, MRI and PC-MRI) with computational fluid and structural mechanics along with fluid-structure interaction.

Research student: Harkamaljot Kandail.

“Development of a multi-physics model for thermosensitive liposomal delivery of drugs activated by focused ultrasound”

The use of nanotherapeutics may allow for a more effective means in treating thromboembolic diseases. The aim of this project is to develop a multi-physics model in Ansys Fluent capable of simulating the potential outcomes and lytic efficacies of using tPA-loaded thermosensitve nanoparticle s in thrombolyt ic therapy.

Research student: Andris Piebalgs.

“Development of theranostic nanoparticles; MRI-responsive, thermosensitive drug carriers activated by MRg FUS for local tumour drug release”

Research associate: Dr. Cong Liu

“Development of thermal sensitive liposomes for targeted delivery and controlled release of drug”

Thermal sensitive liposome without unstable lysolipid-analogue will be developed for various disease models that requires potent drug concentrati on at disease site. Several drug molecules ranging with different molecular weights and properties will be encapsulated into lipsomes using particular type of preparation method that suits both the formulation and drug molecules. The in vitro thermal sensitivity and stability, as well as the physical properties of formulations will be determined. The achievement of formulations is expected to improve the therapetuic index of encapsulated drug molecules.

Research student: Xin Zhang.

“Analysis of carotid wall mechanics based on ultrasound imaging”

In collaboration with clinical researchers and vascular surgeons at Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, this project aims to develop computational models of carotid plaques for quantitative analysis of stresses acting on and within the plaque. This study addresses some of the most factors which need to be considered when developing computational model of arterial biomechanics, including the dimensions of model, the viscoelastic behaviour, coupling methods and the effects of multilayer-structure.

Research student: Zhongjie Wang.

“Biomechanical study of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) enlargement after endovascular ane urysm repair (EVAR)”

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) may continue to expand or even rupture after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) either because of endoleak or endotension. The modification of mechanical and biochemical environment in AAA with endoleak and endotension after EVAR will be studied in order to investigate the mechanism of AAA enlargement after EVAR.

Visiting academic: Dr Anqiang Sun.

“Mathematical Modelling of Drug Delivery to Solid Tumour”

Research student: Wenbo Zhan.

“Analysis of blood flow in the pulmonary arteries of patients with Eisenmenger syndrome”

The aim of the study is to develop a three-dimensional modelling tool to analyse the biomechanical stress parameters involved in the progression of pulmonary artery remodelling in Eisenmenger patients.

Research student: Afet Mehmet.

“Effect of ageing on carotid artery morphology, hemodynamics, and the development of atherosclerosis”

Researcher: Claudio Carallo.

“Development of computational methods for personalised assessment of the biomechanical functions of the Marfan aorta”

The aim of this project is to evaluate the biomechanical implications of inserting a personalised external aortic root support (PEARS). This device has recently been pioneered to prevent progressive aortic root dilatation, and subsequently aortic dissection, in patients with Marfan Syndrome. Patient-specific models will be developed using a combination of clinical image processing (MRI and PC-MRI) and computational fluid and structural mechanics.

Research student: Shelly Singh.

“Analysis of morphology and flow in the aorta: comparison between bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves”

The project aim is to characterise the flow patterns in the thoracic aorta and have a better understanding of the flow patterns, behaviour, along with the turbulent intensities and wall shear stress ranges in the normal thoracic aorta for comparison with the pathophysiological condition. Importantly, we hope our range of findings will help towards predicting flow in the normal and pathophysiological aorta for use in the diagnosis, evaluation and management of thoracic aorta diseases like aneurysm, dissection and atherosclerosis amongst others.

Research student: Oluwatoyin Fatona.

“Investigation of geometric features and flap motion on the progression of aortic dissection”

Research student: Ana Crispin Corzo.

"Understanding the effects of turbulence and transition in patients with aortic valve disease and different aortic valve prostheses"

This project involves numerical modelling of patient-specific aortas with diseased aortic valves and those having undergone aortic valve replacement. This research focuses on laminar-to-turbulence transition and understanding the effects of turbulence on aortic haemodynamics and biomechanics.

Research student: Emily Manchester.

"Analysis of haemodynamics and biomechanics of endografts for complex aortic arch repair"

Research student: Sampad Sengupta.

"Development of an integrated computational framework for prediction of treatment outcomes in aortic dissection patients"

Research student: Mei Yan Chong.

"Predicting stent induced new entry evolution in patient-specific Stanford B aortic dissection model". 

Research student: Xiaoxin Kan.

"Computational analysis of the hemodynamic performance of novel endovascular and surgical procedures for complex aortic diseases"

Research student: Yu Zhu.

"Development of engineered liposomes for targeted thrombolytic therapy”

Research associate: Boram Gu.

"Predicting the Outcome of TEVAR for Type B Aortic Dissection"

My research is focused developing computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models to predict the patient-specific outcomes of treatment for type B aortic dissection, primarily thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR).

Research student: Chloe Armour.