Since they were first commercialised 30 years ago, we have become increasingly reliant on lithium-ion batteries. Used in everything from phones and computers to electric vehicles and electricity grids, they provide an attractive combination of affordability, high energy and power densities, high cycling efficiencies and lifetimes. However, as demand for these batteries has increased, researchers, manufacturers and consumers have raised questions about the impacts of a battery economy. This White Paper from Imperial College London’s Energy Futures Lab and the Institute for Molecular Science and Engineering investigates the safety and sustainability of lithium-ion batteries, exploring ways of reducing their impact on the environment and ensuring they do not pose a danger to the health of workers or users.

Download Safe and Sustainable Lithium-ion Batteries here