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  • Journal article
    Bull AMJ, Sabharwal S, Patel NK, Reilly Pet al., 2015,

    Surgical interventions for anterior shoulder instability in rugby players: A systematic review

    , World Journal of Orthopedics, Vol: 6, Pages: 400-408, ISSN: 2218-5836

    AIM: To systematically evaluate the evidence-based literature on surgical treatment interventions for elite rugby players with anterior shoulder instability. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines, a literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar using the following search terms: “rugby” and “shoulder” in combination with “instability” or “dislocation”. All articles published from inception of the included data sources to January 1st 2014 that evaluated surgical treatment of elite rugby players with anterior shoulder instability were examined. RESULTS: Only five studies were found that met the eligibility criteria. A total of 379 shoulders in 376 elite rugby union and league players were included. All the studies were retrospective cohort or case series studies. The mean Coleman Methodological Score for the 5 studies was 47.4 (poor). Owing to heterogeneity amongst the studies, quantitative synthesis was not possible, however a detailed qualitative synthesis is reported. The overall recurrence rate of instability after surgery was 8.7%, and the mean return to competitive play, where reported, was 13 mo.CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic stabilization has been performed successfully in acute anterior instability and there is a preference for open Latarjet-type procedures when instability is associated with osseous defects.

  • Journal article
    Shaheen AF, Bull AMJ, Alexander CM, 2015,

    Rigid and Elastic taping changes scapular kinematics and pain in subjects with shoulder impingement syndrome; an experimental study

  • Journal article
    Bonner TJ, Newell N, Karunaratne A, Pullen AD, Amis AA, Bull AMJ, Masouros SDet al., 2015,

    Strain-rate sensitivity of the lateral collateral ligament of the knee

  • Journal article
    Cleather DJ, Southgate DFL, Bull AMJ, 2014,

    On the Role of the Patella, ACL and Joint Contact Forces in the Extension of the Knee

    , PLoS ONE, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1932-6203

    Traditional descriptions of the knee suggest that the function of the patella is tofacilitate knee extension by increasing the moment arm of the quadriceps muscles.Through modelling and evidence from the literature it is shown in this paper that thepresence of the patella makes the ability of the quadriceps to rotate the thighgreater than their ability to rotate the tibia. Furthermore, this difference increases asthe knee is flexed, thus demonstrating a pattern that is consistent with many humanmovements. This paper also shows that the anterior cruciate ligament plays apreviously unheralded role in extending the shank and that translation at thetibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints is important in improving the capacity for thighrotation when the knee is flexed. This study provides new insights as to how thestructure of the knee is adapted to its purpose and illustrates how the functionalanatomy of the knee contributes to its extension function.

  • Journal article
    Cleather DJ, Southgate DFL, Bull AMJ, 2014,

    The role of the biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles in closed chain lower limb extension

    , Journal of Theoretical Biology

    The role of the biarticular muscles is a topic that has received considerable attention however their function is not well understood. In this paper, we argue that an analysis that is based upon considering the effect of the biarticular muscles on the segments that they span (rather than their effect on joint rotations) can be illuminating. We demonstrate that this understanding is predicated on a consideration of the relative sizes of the moment arms of a biarticular muscle about the two joints that it crosses. The weight of the previous literature suggests that the moment arms of both the biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius are smaller at the knee than at the hip or ankle (respectively). This in turn leads to the conclusion that both biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius are extensors of the lower limb. We show that the existence of these biarticular structures lends a degree of flexibility to the motor control strategies available for lower limb extension. In particular, the role of the gastrocnemius and biarticular hamstrings in permitting a large involvement of the quadriceps musculature in closed chain lower limb extension may be more important than is typically portrayed. Finally, the analysis presented in this paper demonstrates the importance of considering the effects of muscles on the body as a whole, not just on the joints they span.

  • Journal article
    Prinold JAI, Bull AMJ, 2014,

    Scaling and kinematics optimisation of the scapula and thorax in upper limb musculoskeletal models

    , Journal of Biomechanics, Vol: 47, Pages: 2813-2819, ISSN: 0021-9290

    Accurate representation of individual scapula kinematics and subject geometries is vital in musculoskeletal models applied to upper limb pathology and performance. In applying individual kinematics to a model׳s cadaveric geometry, model constraints are commonly prescriptive. These rely on thorax scaling to effectively define the scapula׳s path but do not consider the area underneath the scapula in scaling, and assume a fixed conoid ligament length. These constraints may not allow continuous solutions or close agreement with directly measured kinematics.A novel method is presented to scale the thorax based on palpated scapula landmarks. The scapula and clavicle kinematics are optimised with the constraint that the scapula medial border does not penetrate the thorax. Conoid ligament length is not used as a constraint. This method is simulated in the UK National Shoulder Model and compared to four other methods, including the standard technique, during three pull-up techniques (n=11). These are high-performance activities covering a large range of motion.Model solutions without substantial jumps in the joint kinematics data were improved from 23% of trials with the standard method, to 100% of trials with the new method. Agreement with measured kinematics was significantly improved (more than 10° closer at p<0.001) when compared to standard methods. The removal of the conoid ligament constraint and the novel thorax scaling correction factor were shown to be key. Separation of the medial border of the scapula from the thorax was large, although this may be physiologically correct due to the high loads and high arm elevation angles.

  • Journal article
    Eftaxiopoulou T, Macdonald W, Britzman D, Bull AMJet al., 2014,

    Gait compensations in rats after a temporary nerve palsy quantified using temporo-spatial and kinematic parameters

    , JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS, Vol: 232, Pages: 16-23, ISSN: 0165-0270
  • Journal article
    Buckeridge EM, Bull AMJ, McGregor AH, 2014,

    Biomechanical determinants of elite rowing technique and performance

    , Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, Vol: 25, Pages: e176-e183, ISSN: 0905-7188
  • Journal article
    Singleton JAG, Gibb IE, Bull AMJ, Clasper JCet al., 2014,

    Blast-mediated traumatic amputation: evidence for a revised, multiple injury mechanism theory

    , JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS, Vol: 160, Pages: 175-179, ISSN: 0035-8665
  • Journal article
    Singleton JAG, Walker NM, Gibb IE, Bull AMJ, Clasper JCet al., 2014,

    Case suitability for definitive through knee amputation following lower extremity blast trauma: analysis of 146 combat casualties, 2008-2010

    , JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS, Vol: 160, Pages: 187-190, ISSN: 0035-8665

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