Browse through all publications from the Institute of Global Health Innovation, which our Patient Safety Research Collaboration is part of. This feed includes reports and research papers from our Centre. 

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  • Journal article
    Garfield S, Bell H, Nathan C, Randall S, Husson F, Boucher C, Taylor A, Lloyd J, Backhouse A, Ritchie L, Franklin BDet al., 2018,

    A quality improvement project to increase self-administration of medicines in an acute hospital

    , INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR QUALITY IN HEALTH CARE, Vol: 30, Pages: 396-407, ISSN: 1353-4505
  • Journal article
    Kwasnicki RM, Cross GW, Geoghegan L, Zhang Z, Reilly P, Darzi A, Yang GZ, Emery Ret al., 2018,

    A lightweight sensing platform for monitoring sleep quality and posture: a simulated validation study


    BackgroundThe prevalence of self-reported shoulder pain in the UK has been estimated at 16%. This has been linked with significant sleep disturbance. It is possible that this relationship is bidirectional, with both symptoms capable of causing the other. Within the field of sleep monitoring, there is a requirement for a mobile and unobtrusive device capable of monitoring sleep posture and quality. This study investigates the feasibility of a wearable sleep system (WSS) in accurately detecting sleeping posture and physical activity.MethodsSixteen healthy subjects were recruited and fitted with three wearable inertial sensors on the trunk and forearms. Ten participants were entered into a ‘Posture’ protocol; assuming a series of common sleeping postures in a simulated bedroom. Five participants completed an ‘Activity’ protocol, in which a triphasic simulated sleep was performed including awake, sleep and REM phases. A combined sleep posture and activity protocol was then conducted as a ‘Proof of Concept’ model. Data were used to train a posture detection algorithm, and added to activity to predict sleep phase. Classification accuracy of the WSS was measured during the simulations.ResultsThe WSS was found to have an overall accuracy of 99.5% in detection of four major postures, and 92.5% in the detection of eight minor postures. Prediction of sleep phase using activity measurements was accurate in 97.3% of the simulations. The ability of the system to accurately detect both posture and activity enabled the design of a conceptual layout for a user-friendly tablet application.ConclusionsThe study presents a pervasive wearable sensor platform, which can accurately detect both sleeping posture and activity in non-specialised environments. The extent and accuracy of sleep metrics available advances the current state-of-the-art technology. This has potential diagnostic implications in musculoskeletal pathology and with the addition of aler

  • Journal article
    Flott K, Darzi A, Gancarczyk S, Mayer Eet al., 2018,

    Improving the usefulness and use of patient survey programmes: Views from the frontline

    , Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 20, Pages: e141-e141, ISSN: 1438-8871

    Background: A growing body of evidence suggests a concerning lag between collection of patient experience data and its application in service improvement. This study aims to identify what health care staff perceive to be the barriers and facilitators to using patient-reported feedback and showcase successful examples of doing so.Objective: This study aimed to apply a systems perspective to suggest policy improvements that could support efforts to use data on the frontlines.Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted in eight National Health Service provider locations in the United Kingdom, which were selected based on National Inpatient Survey scores. Eighteen patient-experience leads were interviewed about using patient-reported feedback with relevant staff. Interviews were transcribed and underwent thematic analysis. Staff-identified barriers and facilitators to using patient experience feedback were obtained.Results: The most frequently cited barriers to using patient reported feedback pertained to interpreting results, understanding survey methodology, presentation of data in both national Care Quality Commission and contractor reports, inability to link data to other sources, and organizational structure. In terms of a wish list for improved practice, staff desired more intuitive survey methodologies, the ability to link patient experience data to other sources, and more examples of best practice in patient experience improvement. Three organizations also provided examples of how they successfully used feedback to improve care.Conclusions: Staff feedback provides a roadmap for policy makers to reconsider how data is collected and whether or not the national regulations on surveys and patient experience data are meeting the quality improvement needs of local organizations.

  • Journal article
    Furniss D, Lyons I, Franklin BD, Mayer A, Chumbley G, Wei L, Cox AL, Vos J, Galal-Edeen G, Blandford Aet al., 2018,

    Procedural and documentation variations in intravenous infusion administration: a mixed methods study of policy and practice across 16 hospital trusts in England

    , BMC Health Services Research, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1472-6963

    Background:Procedural and documentation deviations relating to intravenous (IV) infusion administration can have important safety consequences. However, research on such deviations is limited. To address this we investigated the prevalence of procedural and documentation deviations in IV infusion administration and explored variability in policy and practice across different hospital trusts.Methods:We conducted a mixed methods study. This involved observations of deviations from local policy including quantitative and qualitative data, and focus groups with clinical staff to explore the causes and contexts of deviations. The observations were conducted across five clinical areas (general medicine, general surgery, critical care, paediatrics and oncology day care) in 16 National Health Service (NHS) trusts in England. All infusions being administered at the time of data collection were included. Deviation rates for procedural and documentation requirements were compared between trusts. Local data collectors and other relevant stakeholders attended focus groups at each trust. Policy details and reasons for deviations were discussed.Results:At least one procedural or documentation deviation was observed in 961 of 2008 IV infusions (deviation rate 47.9%; 95% confidence interval 45.5–49.8%). Deviation rates at individual trusts ranged from 9.9 to 100% of infusions, with considerable variation in the prevalence of different types of deviation. Focus groups revealed lack of policy awareness, ambiguous policies, safety and practicality concerns, different organisational priorities, and wide variation in policies and practice relating to prescribing and administration of IV flushes and double-checking.Conclusions:Deviation rates and procedural and documentation requirements varied considerably between hospital trusts. Our findings reveal areas where local policy and practice do not align. Some policies may be impractical and lack utility. We suggest clearer evidence-ba

  • Journal article
    Prime M, Attaelmanan I, Imbuldeniya A, Harris M, Darzi A, Bhatti Yet al., 2018,

    From Malawi to Middlesex – The case of the Arbutus Drill Cover System as an example of the cost saving potential of frugal innovations for the UK NHS

    , BMJ Innovations, Vol: 4, Pages: 103-110, ISSN: 2055-642X

    Background Musculoskeletal disease is one of the leading clinical and economic burdens of the UK health system, and the resultant demand for orthopaedic care is only set to increase. One commonly used and one of the most expensive hardware in orthopaedic surgery is the surgical drill and saw. Given financial constraints, the National Health Service (NHS) needs an economic way to address this recurring cost. We share evidence of one frugal innovation with potential for contributing to the NHS’ efficiency saving target of £22 billion by 2020.Methods Exploratory case study methodology was used to develop insights and understanding of the innovations potential for application in the NHS. Following a global search for potential frugal innovations in surgery, the Arbutus Drill Cover System was identified as an innovation with potential to deliver significant cost savings for the NHS in the UK.Results The Arbutus Drill Cover System is up to 94% cheaper than a standard surgical drill available in the UK. Clinical and laboratory tests show that performance, safety and usability are as good as current offerings in high-income countries and significantly better than hand drills typically used in low-and-middle-income countries. The innovation meets all regulatory requirements to be a medical device in the Europe and North America.Conclusions The innovation holds promise in reducing upfront and life span costs for core equipment used in orthopaedic surgery without loss of effectiveness or safety benchmarks. However, the innovation needs to navigate complicated and decentralised procurement processes and clinicians and healthcare leaders need to overcome cognitive bias.

  • Journal article
    Ahmed I, Ahmad NS, Ali S, Ali S, George A, Saleem H, Uppal E, Soo J, Mobasheri M, King D, Cox BM, Darzi Aet al., 2018,

    Medication adherence apps: A review and content analysis

    , JMIR mHealth and uHealth, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2291-5222

    Background:Medication adherence is a costly and damaging problem for both healthcare providers and patients alike. Patients adhere to only 50% of drugs prescribed for chronic diseases in developed nations. Digital health has paved the way for innovative smartphone solutions to tackle this challenge. However, despite the numerous applications (apps) available claiming to improve adherence, a thorough review of adherence applications has not been carried out to date.Objective:(i)To review medication adherence apps (otherwise known as mAdherence app) in the Apple App store and the Google Play repository in terms of their evidence base, medical professional involvement in development, and strategies used to facilitate behaviour change and improve adherence.(ii)To provide a system of classification for these apps. Methods:In April 2015, relevant mAdherence apps were identified by systematically searching the Apple and Google Play app stores using a combination of relevant search terms. Data extracted for each app included app store source, app price, documentation of healthcare professional (HCP) involvement during app development and evidence base for each respective app.Free apps were downloaded to explore the strategies used to promote medication adherence. Testing involved a standardised medication regimen of three reminders over a four-hour period. Non-adherence features designed to enhance user experience were also documented.Results:The App repository search identified a total of 5889 applications. 806 fulfilled the inclusion criteria initially and were tested. 682 applications were further analysed for data extraction. Of these, 61.7% were free for testing, 8.5% were inaccessible and 29.8% required payment. Of the 421 free applications, 13.8% were developed with HCP involvement and an evidence base was identified in only 0.95%. Of the paid apps, 4.4% had HCP involvement, 0.5% had a documented evidence base and 0.5% had both. 31% of inaccessible apps were produce

  • Journal article
    Dewa LH, Murray K, Thibaut B, Ramtale C, Adam S, Darzi A, Archer Set al., 2018,

    Identifying research priorities for patient safety in mental health: an international expert Delphi study

    , BMJ Open, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2044-6055

    Objective Physical healthcare has dominated the patient safety field; research in mental healthcare is not as extensive but findings from physical healthcare cannot be applied to mental healthcare because it delivers specialised care that faces unique challenges. Therefore, a clearer focus and recognition of patient safety in mental health as a distinct research area is still needed. The study aim is to identify future research priorities in the field of patient safety in mental health.Design Semistructured interviews were conducted with the experts to ascertain their views on research priorities in patient safety in mental health. A three-round online Delphi study was used to ascertain consensus on 117 research priority statements.Setting and participants Academic and service user experts from the USA, UK, Switzerland, Netherlands, Ireland, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand and Singapore were included.Main outcome measures Agreement in research priorities on a five-point scale.Results Seventy-nine statements achieved consensus (>70%). Three out of the top six research priorities were patient driven; experts agreed that understanding the patient perspective on safety planning, on self-harm and on medication was important.Conclusions This is the first international Delphi study to identify research priorities in safety in the mental field as determined by expert academic and service user perspectives. A reasonable consensus was obtained from international perspectives on future research priorities in patient safety in mental health; however, the patient perspective on their mental healthcare is a priority. The research agenda for patient safety in mental health identified here should be informed by patient safety science more broadly and used to further establish this area as a priority in its own right. The safety of mental health patients must have parity with that of physical health patients to achieve this.

  • Conference paper
    Modi HN, Singh H, Yang G, Darzi A, Leff DRet al., 2018,

    Robotic surgery improves attention and concentration during times of intraoperative temporal stress

    , Association of Surgeons of Great Britain & Ireland International Surgical Congress, Publisher: Wiley, ISSN: 1365-2168
  • Conference paper
    Leiloglou M, Qi J, Rees Whippey D, Curtis A, Price C, Copner N, Martin-Gonzalez P, Hanna G, Darzi A, Leff D, Elson Det al., 2018,

    Guiding Fluorescence-Augmented Imaging System for Breast Cancer Surgery

    , BMES Annual Meeting
  • Conference paper
    Leiloglou M, Qi J, Rees Whippey D, Curtis A, Price C, Copner N, Martin-Gonzalez P, Hanna G, Darzi A, Leff D, Elson Det al., 2018,

    Guiding Fluorescence-Augmented Imaging System for Breast Cancer Surgery

    , EPSRC Image Guided Therapies Young Investigators

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