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  • Journal article
    King E, Xu XY, Hughes AD, Long Q, Thom SA, Parker KHet al., 2002,

    Quantification of the non-planarity of the human carotid bifurcation

    , BIORHEOLOGY, Vol: 39, Pages: 419-424, ISSN: 0006-355X
  • Journal article
    Köhler U, Marshall I, Robertson MB, Long Q, Xu XY, Hoskins PRet al., 2001,

    MRI measurement of wall shear stress vectors in bifurcation models and comparison with CFD predictions.

    , J Magn Reson Imaging, Vol: 14, Pages: 563-573, ISSN: 1053-1807

    Steady fluid flow was studied in a simple bifurcation model and in a physiologically realistic model of the human carotid bifurcation. Wall shear stress (WSS) vectors were calculated from phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of the velocity field. Velocity measurements in the inflow regions were also used as boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of WSS, which were compared with those derived from MRI alone. In regions of well-behaved flow, MRI and CFD estimates of WSS were in good general agreement. In regions of disturbed flow, for example near the bifurcation, the quality of the MRI measurements was sufficient for reliable calculation of WSS vectors when a sensitive surface coil was used. The combination of MRI and CFD would seem to be a powerful technique for the investigation of flow phenomena.

  • Journal article
    Long Q, Xu XY, Ramnarine KV, Hoskins Pet al., 2001,

    Numerical investigation of physiologically realistic pulsatile flow through arterial stenosis

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 34, Pages: 1229-1242, ISSN: 0021-9290
  • Journal article
    Augst AD, Barratt DC, Hughes AD, Thom SAM, Xu XYet al., 2001,

    CFD model of a human carotid artery bifurcation reconstructed from 3D ultrasound data

    , HYPERTENSION, Vol: 38, Pages: 977-977, ISSN: 0194-911X
  • Journal article
    Zhao SZ, Zambanini A, Long Q, Xu XY, Hughes AD, Thom SAet al., 2000,

    Difference in anatomical features of the femoral artery between male and female

    , HYPERTENSION, Vol: 36, Pages: 666-666, ISSN: 0194-911X
  • Journal article
    Xu XY, Zhao SZ, Ariff B, Long Q, Hughes AD, Thorn SA, Stanton AVet al., 2000,

    Shear stress and mechanical forces in the walls of carotid arteries

    , HYPERTENSION, Vol: 36, Pages: 664-664, ISSN: 0194-911X
  • Journal article
    Zhao SZ, Xu XY, Hughes AD, Thom SA, Stanton AV, Ariff B, Long Qet al., 2000,

    Blood flow and vessel mechanics in a physiologically realistic model of a human carotid arterial bifurcation

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 33, Pages: 975-984, ISSN: 0021-9290
  • Journal article
    Xu XY, Zhao SZ, Long Q, Ariff B, Hughes AD, Thom SAet al., 2000,

    3D reconstruction of flow patterns and shear stress in human arteries

    , JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, Vol: 525, Pages: 4P-4P, ISSN: 0022-3751
  • Journal article
    Long Q, Xu XY, Bourne M, Griffith TMet al., 2000,

    Numerical study of blood flow in an anatomically realistic aorto-iliac bifurcation generated from MRI data

    , MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Vol: 43, Pages: 565-576, ISSN: 0740-3194
  • Journal article
    Long Q, Xu XY, Ariff B, Thom SA, Hughes AD, Stanton AVet al., 2000,

    Reconstruction of blood flow patterns in a human carotid bifurcation: A combined CFD and MRI study

    , JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, Vol: 11, Pages: 299-311, ISSN: 1053-1807
  • Journal article
    Xu XY, Long Q, Bourne M, Griffith TMet al., 1999,

    On the geometrical and flow characteristics of the human aortic bifurcation

    , American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Bioengineering Division (Publication) BED, Vol: 42, Pages: 725-726

    The effect of branching non-planarity on the local blood flow pattern and wall shear stress distribution was investigated using a combination of magnetic resistance (MR) imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. MR measurements of the vascular geometry and velocities at selected sites of the aortic bifurcation of a healthy subject were made. Flow patterns at the bifurcation were reconstructed using a CFD solver. A comparison was also made with results obtained for the same bifurcation geometry but with a planar assumption.

  • Journal article
    Starmans-Kool M, Stanton A, Zhao S, Xu Y, Hughes A, Thom S, Struijker Het al., 1999,

    Carotid haemodynamics and the effects of salt

    , HYPERTENSION, Vol: 34, Pages: 706-706, ISSN: 0194-911X
  • Journal article
    Zhao SZ, Xu XY, Collins MW, Stanton AV, Hughes AD, Thom SAet al., 1999,

    Flow in carotid bifurcations: effect of the superior thyroid artery

    , MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS, Vol: 21, Pages: 207-214, ISSN: 1350-4533
  • Conference paper
    Sun YD, Sun YF, Sun Y, Xu XY, Collins MWet al., 1999,

    Visualisation of dynamic flow birefringence of cardiovascular models

    , International Conference on Optical Methods and Data Processing in Heat and Fluid Flow, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD, Pages: 103-112, ISSN: 0030-3992
  • Conference paper
    Zhao SZ, Collins MW, Long Q, Xu XYet al., 1999,

    The application of computational fluid dynamics and solid mechanics to haemodynamics in arterial organs and to related problems

    , Conference on Cardiovascular Flow Modelling and Measurement with Application to Clinical Medicine, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 83-112
  • Journal article
    Xu XY, Long Q, Collins MW, Bourne M, Griffith TMet al., 1999,

    Reconstruction of blood flow patterns in human arteries

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART H-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE, Vol: 213, Pages: 411-421, ISSN: 0954-4119
  • Conference paper
    Zhao SZ, Xu XY, Collins MW, Stanton AV, Hughes AD, Thom SAet al., 1999,

    The convergence technique in numerical solutions of coupled fluid-wall problems

    , Conference on Cardiovascular Flow Modelling and Measurement with Application to Clinical Medicine, Publisher: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, Pages: 125-134
  • Book chapter
    Q Long, XY Xu, MW Collins, 1999,

    Simulation of flow in human arterial bifurcations using a combination of CFD and MRI techniques

    , Haemodynamics of arterial organs – comparison of computational predictions with in vivo and in vitro data, Editors: Xu, Collins, Southampton, UK, Publisher: WIT Press, Pages: 185-238, ISBN: 9781853125096
  • Journal article
    Long Q, Xu XY, Collins MW, Griffith TM, Bourne Met al., 1998,

    The combination of magnetic resonance angiography and computational fluid dynamics: A critical review

    , CRITICAL REVIEWS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 26, Pages: 227-274, ISSN: 0278-940X
  • Journal article
    Zhao SZ, Xu XY, Collins MW, 1998,

    The numerical analysis of fluid-solid interactions for blood flow in arterial structures - Part 2: development of coupled fluid-solid algorithms

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART H-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE, Vol: 212, Pages: 241-252, ISSN: 0954-4119

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