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  • Journal article
    Nyilas RD, Ng SML, Leung J, Xu XYet al., 2005,

    Towards a new geometric approach to assess the risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms using patient specific modelling

    , Proceedings of the 2005 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Vol: 2005, Pages: 1246-1247
  • Journal article
    Borghi A, Wood NB, Mohiaddin RH, Xu XYet al., 2005,

    Computational modeling of fluid dynamics and stress pattern in thoracic aortic aneurysms

    , Proceedings of the 2005 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Vol: 2005, Pages: 355-356
  • Conference paper
    Ricard F, Brechtelsbauer C, Xu XY, Lawrence CJet al., 2005,

    Monitoring of multiphase pharmaceutical processes using electrical resistance tomography

    , 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: 794-805, ISSN: 0263-8762
  • Journal article
    Glor FP, Ariff B, Hughes AD, Verdonck PR, McG SA, Barratt DC, Xu XYet al., 2005,

    Operator dependence of 3-D ultrasound-based computational fluid dynamics for the carotid bifurcation

    , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, Vol: 24, Pages: 451-456, ISSN: 0278-0062
  • Conference paper
    Ricard F, Brechtelsbauer C, Xu Y, Lawrence C, Thompson Det al., 2005,

    Development of an electrical resistance tomography reactor for pharmaceutical processes

    , 3rd World Congress in Process Tomography, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 11-18, ISSN: 0008-4034
  • Book chapter
    Augst AD, Ariff B, Barratt DC, Thom SAM, Hughes AD, Xu XYet al., 2005,

    Application of ultrasound-based computational fluid dynamics to modeling blood flow in the carotid bifurcation

    , Medical Imaging Systems Technology: Volume 5: Methods in Cardiovascular and Brain Systems, Pages: 109-156, ISBN: 9789812569899

    Atherosclerotic plaque formation has been linked to haemodynamic risk factors, such as low and oscillating wall shear stresses (WSS). Experimental and numerical methods have been developed to investigate the mechanisms involved. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have the advantages of low cost and easily manageable numerical results. In order to obtain physiologically realistic results, CFD can be linked with medical imaging methods, which allow the extraction of in vivo vascular geometry and flow data to be used as input for haemodynamic simulations. Most of the image-based CFD approaches have been based on MRI, which has the disadvantages of relatively high cost and limited availability. Hence, a novel technique based on 3D ultrasound was developed with the advantages of low cost, fast acquisition and high spatial resolution. A methodology was developed to extract geometric information from the ultrasound images, reconstruct the surfaces and generate computational grids for flow simulations of the human carotid artery bifurcation. Additionally, a scheme was devised to utilize Doppler flow information for CFD boundary conditions. Accuracy and reproducibility of the combined imaging and modeling approach were evaluated in vitro and in vivo and the developed protocol was applied to normal subjects. The main conclusion of this work is the feasibility of 3D and Doppler ultrasound based CFD simulations for clinical applications. However, there are several limitations when applying this methodology in carotid bifurcations, i.e. the location of the carotid bulb relative to the jaw bone, which obscures the ultrasound path when the bifurcation is high in the neck. Future work should focus on minimizing the limitations and improve automation and reliability of image processing and reconstruction.

  • Journal article
    Lee KW, Wood NB, Xu XY, 2004,

    Ultrasound image-based computer model of a common carotid artery with a plaque

    , MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS, Vol: 26, Pages: 823-840, ISSN: 1350-4533
  • Journal article
    Glor FP, Ariff B, Hughes AD, Crowe LA, Verdonck PR, Barratt DC, Thom SAM, Firmin DN, Xu XYet al., 2004,

    Image-based carotid flow reconstruction: a comparison between MRI and ultrasound

    , PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT, Vol: 25, Pages: 1495-1509, ISSN: 0967-3334
  • Journal article
    Glor FP, Ariff B, Hughes AD, Verdonck PR, Barratt DC, Augst AD, Thom SAM, Xu XYet al., 2004,

    Influence of head position on carotid hemodynamics in young adults

    , AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 287, Pages: H1670-H1681, ISSN: 0363-6135
  • Conference paper
    Augst A, Ariff B, Barratt D, Thom SAM, Xu XY, Hughes ADet al., 2004,

    Blood pressure not shear stress is related to intima-media thickness (IMT) over the entire carotid bifurcation

    , 9th Annual Meeting of the European Council for Cardiovascular Research, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, Pages: 566-566, ISSN: 0194-911X
  • Conference paper
    Hughes A, Ariff B, Stanton A, Xu Y, Sever P, Thom Set al., 2004,

    Differential efects of antihypertensive drugs on vascular structure

    , 14th European Meeting on Hypertension, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, Pages: S201-S201, ISSN: 0263-6352
  • Journal article
    Marshall I, Zhao SZ, Papathanasopoulou P, Hoskins P, Xu XYet al., 2004,

    MRI and CFD studies of pulsatile flow in healthy and stenosed carotid bifurcation models

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 37, Pages: 679-687, ISSN: 0021-9290
  • Conference paper
    Ariff B, Zambanini A, Sarita V, Barratt D, Xu Y, Sever P, Chaturvedi N, Stanton A, Thom S, Hughes Aet al., 2004,

    Hemodynamic determinants of carotid artery structure in essential hypertension

    , 19th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hypertension, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: 131A-132A, ISSN: 0895-7061
  • Journal article
    Leung J, Wright A, Cheshire N, Thom SA, Hughes AD, Xu XYet al., 2004,

    Flow patterns and wall shear stresses in patient-specific models of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    , Stud Health Technol Inform, Vol: 103, Pages: 235-242, ISSN: 0926-9630

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are a major cause of death in Western societies. However, the factors responsible for the growth and ultimate rupture of AAA are not fully understood. Using computation fluid dynamics combined with CT images, the flow patterns and wall shear stress (WSS) in the AAA of a patient were studied. AAA geometry was obtained from images acquired during a routine CT scan, and a realistic abdominal aortic flow waveform was used as an upstream boundary condition. The computational results showed the presence of multiple flow recirculation zones and overall low WSS in the bulge of the aneurysm. This may provide some insight into the growth of thrombus in AAA.

  • Journal article
    Glor FP, Ariff B, Hughes AD, Crowe LA, Verdonck PR, Barratt DC, Thom SAMG, Firmin DN, Xu XYet al., 2004,

    The integration of medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics for measuring wall shear stress in carotid arteries

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE 26TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY SOCIETY, VOLS 1-7, Vol: 26, Pages: 1415-1418, ISSN: 1094-687X
  • Conference paper
    Wood NB, Xu XY, 2004,

    Turbulence in stenoses: Survey and early numerical results

    , 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, Publisher: TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY PRESS, Pages: 641-644
  • Conference paper
    Cheong PL, Bourne M, Griffith TM, Xu XYet al., 2004,

    Comparison of in vivo MRI measurements with numerical predictions

    , Calgary, 2nd IASTED international conference on biomedical engineering, Innsburck, Austria, 16 - 18 February 2004, Publisher: Acta Press, Pages: 78-82
  • Conference paper
    Merrifield R, Long Q, Xu X, Kilner P, Firmin D, Yang Get al., 2004,

    Combined CFD/MRI Analysis of Left Ventricular Flow

    , MIAR 2003, Pages: 229-236
  • Journal article
    Glor FP, Ariff B, Crowe LA, Hughes AD, Cheong PL, Thom SAM, Verdonck PR, Firmin DN, Barratt DC, Xu XYet al., 2003,

    Carotid geometry reconstruction: a comparison between MRI and ultrasound

    , MEDICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 30, Pages: 3251-3261, ISSN: 0094-2405
  • Journal article
    Long Q, Merrifield R, Yang GZ, Kilner PJ, Firmin DN, Xu XYet al., 2003,

    The influence of inflow boundary conditions on intra left ventricle flow predictions

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, Vol: 125, Pages: 922-927, ISSN: 0148-0731

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