BibTex format

author = {Posirisuk, P and Baker, C and Ghajari, M},
doi = {10.1016/j.aap.2022.106567},
journal = {Accident Analysis and Prevention},
pages = {1--11},
title = {Computational prediction of head-ground impact kinematics in e-scooter falls},
url = {},
volume = {167},
year = {2022}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - E-scooters are the fastest growing mode of micro-mobility with important environmental benefits. However, there are serious concerns about injuries caused by e-scooter accidents. Falls due to poor road surface conditions are a common cause of injury in e-scooter riders, and head injuries are one of the most common and concerning injuries in e-scooter falls. However, the head-ground impact biomechanics in e-scooter falls and its relationship with e-scooter speed and design, road surface conditions and wearing helmets remain poorly understood. To address some of these key questions, we predicted the head-ground impact force and velocity of e-scooter riders in different falls caused by potholes. We used multi-body dynamics approach to model a commercially available e-scooter and simulate 180 falls using human body models. We modelled different pothole sizes to test whether the pothole width and depth influences the onset of falls and head-ground impact speed and force. We also tested whether the e-scooter travelling speed has an influence on the head-ground impact force and velocity. The simulations were carried out with three human body models to ensure that the results of the study are inclusive of a wide range of rider sizes. For our 10inch diameter e-scooter wheels, we found a sudden increase in the occurrence of falls when the pothole depth was increased from 3cm (no falls) to 6cm (41 falls out of 60 cases). When the falls occurred, we found a head-ground impact force of 13.23.4kN, which is larger than skull fracture thresholds. The head-ground impact speed was 6.31.4m/s, which is nearly the same as the impact speed prescribed in bicycle helmet standards. All e-scooter falls resulted in oblique head impacts, with an impact angle of 6510 (measured from the ground). Decreasing the e-scooter speed reduced the head impact speed. For instance, reducing the e-scooter speed from 30km/h to 20km/h led to a 14% reduction in the mean impact speed and 12% reduction in th
AU - Posirisuk,P
AU - Baker,C
AU - Ghajari,M
DO - 10.1016/j.aap.2022.106567
EP - 11
PY - 2022///
SN - 0001-4575
SP - 1
TI - Computational prediction of head-ground impact kinematics in e-scooter falls
T2 - Accident Analysis and Prevention
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 167
ER -