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  • Journal article
    Sadek M, Calvo R, Mougenot C, 2023,

    Co-designing conversational agents: a comprehensive review and recommendations for best practices

    , Design Studies, Vol: 89, ISSN: 0142-694X

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of fifty-two studies co-designing conversational agents (CAs). Its objectives are to synthesise prior CA co-design efforts and provide actionable recommendations for future endeavours in CA co-design. The review systematically evaluates studies' methodological and contextual aspects, revealing trends and limitations. These insights converge into practical recommendations for co-designing CAs, including (1) selecting the most suitable design technique aligned with desired CA outcomes, (2) advocating continuous stakeholder involvement throughout the design process, and (3) emphasising the elicitation and embodiment of stakeholder values to ensure CA designs align with their perspectives. This paper contributes to standardising and enhancing co-design practices, promising to improve the quality of outcomes in the case of CAs while benefiting stakeholders and users.

  • Journal article
    Sadek M, Calvo R, Mougenot C, 2023,

    Designing value-sensitive AI: a critical review and recommendations for socio-technical design processes

    , AI and Ethics, ISSN: 2730-5961

    This paper presents a critical review of how different socio-technical design processes for AI-based systems, from scholarly works and industry, support the creation of value-sensitive AI (VSAI). The review contributes to the emerging field of human-centred AI, and the even more embryonic space of VSAI in four ways: (i) it introduces three criteria for the review of VSAI based on their contribution to design processes’ overall value-sensitivity, and as a response to criticisms that current interventions are lacking in these aspects: comprehensiveness, level of guidance offered, and methodological value-sensitivity, (ii) it provides a novel review of socio-technical design processes for AI-based systems, (iii) it assesses each process based on the mentioned criteria and synthesises the results into broader trends, and (iv) it offers a resulting set of recommendations for the design of VSAI. The objective of the paper is to help creators and followers of design processes—whether scholarly or industry-based—to understand the level of value-sensitivity offered by different socio-technical design processes and act accordingly based on their needs: to adopt or adapt existing processes or to create new ones.

  • Conference paper
    Sadek M, Calvo RA, Mougenot C, 2023,

    Trends, challenges and processes in conversational agent design: exploring practitioners’ views through semi-structured interviews

    , CUI '23: ACM conference on Conversational User Interfaces, Publisher: ACM, Pages: 1-10

    The aim of this study is to explore the challenges and experiences of conversational agent (CA) practitioners in order to highlight their practical needs and bring them into consideration within the scholarly sphere. A range of data scientists, conversational designers, executive managers and researchers shared their opinions and experiences through semi-structured interviews. They were asked about emerging trends, the challenges they face, and the design processes they follow when creating CAs. In terms of trends, findings included mixed feelings regarding no-code solutions and a desire for a separation of roles. The challenges mentioned included a lack of socio-technical tools and conversational archetypes. Finally, practitioners followed different design processes and did not use the design processes described in the academic literature. These findings were analyzed to establish links between practitioners’ insights and discussions in related literature. The goal of this analysis is to highlight research-practice gaps by synthesising five practitioner needs that are not currently being met. By highlighting these research-practice gaps and foregrounding the challenges and experiences of CA practitioners, we can begin to understand the extent to which emerging literature is influencing industrial settings and where more research is needed to better support CA practitioners in their work.

  • Conference paper
    Smith F, Sadek M, Mougenot C, 2023,

    Empowering end-users in co-designing AI: an AI literacy card-based toolkit for non-technical audiences

    , 36th International BCS Human-Computer Interaction Conference
  • Conference paper
    Bermudez J, Nyrup R, Deterding S, Mougenot C, Moradbakhti L, You F, Calvo Ret al., 2023,

    What is a subliminal technique? An ethical perspective on AI-driven influence

    , 2023 IEEE International Symposium on Ethics in Science, Technology and Engineering, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1-10

    Concerns about threats to human autonomy feature prominently in the field of AI ethics. One aspect of this concern relates to the use of AI systems for problematically manipulative influence. In response to this, the European Union's draft AI Act (AIA) includes a prohibition on AI systems deploying subliminal techniques that alter people's behavior in ways that are reasonably likely to cause harm (Article 5(1)(a)). Critics have argued that the term ‘subliminal techniques’ is too narrow to capture the target cases of AI-based manipulation. We propose a definition of ‘subliminal techniques’ that (a) is grounded on a plausible interpretation of the legal text; (b) addresses all or most of the underlying ethical concerns motivating the prohibition; (c) is defensible from a scientific and philosophical perspective; and (d) does not over-reach in ways that impose excessive administrative and regulatory burdens. The definition provides guidance for design teams seeking to pursue responsible and ethically aligned AI innovation.

  • Journal article
    Valk S, Chen Y, Dieckmann E, Mougenot Cet al., 2023,

    Supporting collaborative biodesign ideation with contextualised knowledge from bioscience

    , CoDesign, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1571-0882

    The objective of this work is to support co-creation of novel ideas in biodesign during fast-paced and facilitated workshops. We created a card-based tool which simultaneously provides knowledge on both ‘science’ and ‘context’. The tool was used to trigger and inspire collaborative ideation in two biodesign workshops in which participants from scientific and design backgrounds produced ideas for healthcare-related innovations. To understand the perception of the tool and the mechanism of scientific knowledge integration in ideation, we conducted post-workshop interviews with 10 participants. Our qualitative analysis shows that the exposure to contextualised scientific knowledge provided by the tool enabled participants to generate ideas that cover a wide spectrum from the micro-scale of bioscience to the macro-scale of socio-political contexts, and thus supported the acceleration of ideation in biodesign workshops.

  • Journal article
    Valk S, Thabsuwan C, Mougenot C, 2023,

    The ideation compass: supporting interdisciplinary creative dialogues with real time visualization

    , International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, Vol: 11, Pages: 99-116, ISSN: 2165-0349

    This study presents the potential of live topic visualization in supporting creative dialogs during remote idea generation. We developed a novel Creativity Support Tool (CST) to explore the effects of the live topic visualization. The tool emphasizes the interdisciplinary knowledge background of participants. Using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and topic modeling, the tool provides users with a live visual mapping of the domains and topics being orally discussed. To understand the tool’s user perceived effects, we conducted evaluation sessions and interviews with participants (N = 10) from two different disciplinary backgrounds: design and bioscience. The findings show that live visualization of domains and topics supported self-reflection during individual and collaborative creativity and encouraged a balanced discussion, which can mitigate discipline-based fixation in ideation.

  • Journal article
    Sun S, Zhang Z, Tian M, Mougenot C, Glozier N, Calvo RAet al., 2022,

    Preferences for a Mental Health Support Technology Among Chinese Employees: Mixed Methods Approach

    , JMIR HUMAN FACTORS, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2292-9495
  • Conference paper
    Nguyen QT, Mougenot C, 2022,

    We’re still people and not only emails that we’re sending - shared cognition in distributed design collaboration: A qualitative study on distributed creative teams and the relation of communication ecology on virtual collaboration shared understanding

    , 2022 4th International Electronics Communication Conference (IECC), Publisher: ACM, Pages: 40-46

    To identify challenges for future design collaborative systems, we conducted a qualitative study, interviewing expert design practitioners working in creative, multidisciplinary distributed teams The development of shared mental models, previously not examined through the construct of the CSCW ecology, presented four dimensions: task-specific knowledge, task-related knowledge, knowledge of teammates and attitudes/beliefs, where the latter one being the most vulnerable. The study informs the design of future CSCW tools for virtual collaboration tools to fully support remote creative teams.

  • Journal article
    Nguyen QT, Mougenot C, 2022,

    A systematic review of empirical studies on multidisciplinary design collaboration: findings, methods, and challenges

    , Design Studies, Vol: 81, ISSN: 0142-694X

    While multidisciplinary collaboration is increasingly considered as a prerequisite for innovation in design, it is unclear what has been studied and what to investigate next. To addressthis, we conducted a systematic literature review on multidisciplinary design collaboration,focussing on what has been found, and how these studies have been implemented. Followinga PRISMA approach, 17 papers were selected for a critical review. A co-occurrence analysisfound that the selected literature covered five themes centred on communication, all highlighting the importance of shared understanding in multidisciplinary design collaboration.Further analysis revealed biases and differences between the methodological approach followed in the studies. For future research, we suggest investigating two under-explored areasof design collaboration: distributed work and digital/service-oriented design activities.

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