Mr Mikael Sodergren

Lab/office contact number:
0203 313 8542

What we do

We use eye tracking technology (wearable glasses or static monitors that record data from eye movements) to explore the visual signal as a tool and brain-computer interface for medical applications. Funded by Academy of Medical Science, EPSRC, NIHR, Royal College of Surgeons of England and the Imperial Health Charity, over the last decade we have developed a comprehensive portfolio of eye tracking research including software analysis tools, analytical machine learning algorithms, a robotic interface, as well as an exhaustive catalogue of medical education applications. We have shown gaze metrics to be a valid and reliable measure of technical skill as well as mental workload during surgery.

Why it is important

Approximately 8-12% of hospital admissions will involve an adverse event resulting in harm to the patient and up to half are thought to be preventable. The operating theatre represents the most high-risk environment in a hospital and recent reports show that the rate of adverse events remains unacceptably high. Eye-tracking technology can provide an innovative solution to improve standards and assessments relating to clinical judgement, systems and team working as well as technical skill.

How it can benefit patients

Computer-assistance is on the path to revolutionise many aspects of modern medicine, including surgery. By understanding the signal that we record from our most important sensory input (vision) we will be able to raise standards of practice and assessment throughout medicine with direct benefit to patients.

Summary of current research

  • Procedure Specific Skills Assessment in surgery and endoscopy including in simulated environments
  • Error detection (brain-computer interfacing of psychophysical behavioural identification in surgery)
  • Non-Procedure Specific Skills Assessment including novel algorithm design for real time analysis and novel analytical concepts
  • Multimodal sensing integration with eye tracking data including motion sensors & fNIRS

Additional information

Related Centres

PhD students

When we have funding for PhD studentships, we advertise them through central channels such as Find a PhD. Information is also available on the Surgery and Cancer study page. If no studentships are currently advertised, please get in touch with the group lead with proposed project titles to discuss further. 

We run several BSc projects every year.



  1. Sharma C, Singh H, Orihuela-Espina F, Darzi A, Sodergren MH. Visual gaze patterns reveal surgeons' ability to identify risk of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. HPB (Oxford). 2020 Sep 26:S1365-182X(20)31151-5 

  1. Evans-Harvey K, Erridge S, Karamchandani U, Abdalla S, Beatty JW, Darzi A, Purkayastha S,Sodergren MH. Comparison of surgeon gaze behaviour against objective skill assessment in laparoscopic cholecystectomy-a prospective cohort study. Int J Surg. 2020 Aug 23;82:149-155. 

  1. Kassanos P, Berthelot M, Kim JA, Rosa BMG, Seichepine F, Anastasova S, Sodergren MH, Leff DR, Lo B, Darzi A, Yang G-Z. 2020, Smart Sensing for Surgery From Tethered Devices to Wearables and Implantables, IEEE SYSTEMS MAN AND CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE, Vol: 6, Pages: 39-48 

  1. Lami M, Singh H, Dilley JH, Ashraf H, Edmondon M, Orihuela-Espina F, Hoare J, Darzi A, Sodergren MH. Gaze patterns hold key to unlocking successful search strategies and increasing polyp detection rate in colonoscopy. Endoscopy. 2018 Jul;50(7):701-707 

  1. Erridge S, Ashraf H, Purkayastha S, Darzi A, Sodergren MH. Comparison of gaze behaviour of trainee and experienced surgeons during laparoscopic gastric bypass. Br J Surg. 2018 Feb;105(3):287-294 

  1. Ashraf H, Sodergren MH, Merali N, Mylonas G, Singh H, Darzi A. Eye-tracking technology in medical education: A systematic review. Med Teach. 2018 Jan;40(1):62-69. 

  1. Tonutti M, Elson DS, Yang GZ, Darzi AW, Sodergren MH. The role of technology in minimally invasive surgery: state of the art, recent developments and future directions. Postgrad Med J. 2016;93:159-167 

  1. Erridge S, Ashraf H, Dilley J, Darzi A, Sodergren MH. Eye tracking research: seen through the patient's eyes. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning Published Online First: 08 June 2016. doi: 10.1136/bmjstel-2016-000126 

  1. Edmondson MJ, Pucher PH, Sriskandarajah K, Hoare J, Teare J, Yang GZ, Darzi A, Sodergren MH. Looking towards objective quality evaluation in colonoscopy: Analysis of visual gaze patterns. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Mar;31(3):604-9.  

  1. Tien T, Pucher PH, Sodergren MH, Sriskandarajah K, Yang GZ, Darzi A. Differences in gaze behaviour of expert and junior surgeons performing open inguinal hernia repairSurg Endosc. 2015 Feb;29(2):405-13. 

  1. Tien T, Pucher PH, Sodergren MH, Sriskandarajah K, Yang GZ, Darzi A. Eye tracking for skills assessment and training: a systematic review. J Surg Res. 2014 Sep;191(1):169-78. 

  1. Sodergren MH, Darzi A. Surgical Innovation and the introduction of new technologies. Br J Surg. 2013 Jun;100 Suppl 6:12-3 

  1. Sodergren MH, Orihuela-Espina F, Clark J, Teare J, Yang G-Z, Darzi A. Evaluation of orientation strategies in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Ann Surg. 2010 Dec;252(6):1027-36 

  1. Sodergren MH, Yang GZ, Darzi A. Perception and orientation in minimally invasive surgery. Arch Surg. 2012 Mar;147(3):210-1 

  1. Sodergren MH, Orihuela-Espina F, Mountney P, Clark J, Teare J, Yang G-Z, Darzi A. Orientation strategies in Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery. Ann Surg. 2011 Aug;254(2):257-66 

  1. Sodergren MH, Orihuela-Espina F, Froghi F, Clark J, Teare J, Yang G-Z, Darzi A. Value of orientation training in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Br J Surg. 2011 Oct;98(10):1437-45.  

  1. Sodergren MH, Orihuela-Espina F, Clark J, Darzi A, Yang G-Z. A hidden markov model-based analysis framework using eye-tracking data to characterise re-orientation strategies in minimally invasive surgery. Cogn Process. 2010 Aug;11(3):275-83.  

  1. Sodergren MH, Orihuela-Espina F, Clark J, Darzi A, Yang G-Z. A model to characterise reorientation strategies in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery. Cogn Process. 2009 Sept; 10(2): 307-11 

Our researchers