Critical care involves the care of the sickest patients in the hospital. Critically ill patients have usually been through a significant insult to their body (such as trauma, infection, burn) and have developed organ failure and require life-support. Critical Care is the largest theme bringing together clinicians and scientists from diverse backgrounds and includes collaborative research from hospitals throughout north-west London. Investigations range from evaluating biological mechanisms of organ failure through to the development of innovative technologies which allow the short-term and long-term support and recovery of organs.
Many people are exposed to the environment of an Intensive care unit (ICU) either personally or through a family member. It is often a life-changing event and our work aims to reduce this impact facilitating post-ICU recovery.
- Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
- Burn injury
- Extracorporeal life support
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Journal articleRichardson AL, Vizcaychipi MP, 2014,
Whether or not to offer treatment to a patient, is a dilemma that occurs throughout medicine. The decision to admit to the Intensive Care Unit for life-sustaining care, or for more limited treatment can be difficult. This article aims to cover consent for treatment, advance directives, and best interests, and the continued care that should be provided if the patient ends their life on the Intensive Care Unit. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Journal articleTridente A, Clarke GM, Walden A, et al., 2014,
Journal articleLyman M, Lloyd DG, Ji X, et al., 2014,
Journal articleLax S, Wilson MR, Takata M, et al., 2014,
Arterial oxygen saturation has not been assessed sequentially in conscious mice as a direct consequence of an in vivo murine model of acute lung injury. Here, we report daily changes in arterial oxygen saturation and other cardiopulmonary parameters by using infrared pulse oximetry following intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT-LPS) for up to 9 days, and following IT-phosphate buffered saline up to 72 h as a control. We show that arterial oxygen saturation decreases, with maximal decline at 96 h post IT-LPS. Blood oxygen levels negatively correlate with 7 of 10 quantitative markers of murine lung injury, including neutrophilia and interleukin-6 expression. This identifies infrared pulse oximetry as a method to non-invasively monitor arterial oxygen saturation following direct LPS instillations.
Conference paperSoni S, Wilson MR, O'Dea K, et al., 2014,
Microvesicles Are Sequentially Released From Different Intra-Alveolar Cells In A Mouse Model Of Acute Lung Injury, Publisher: AMER THORACIC SOC, ISSN: 1073-449X
Journal articleWakabayashi K, Wilson MR, Tatham KC, et al., 2014,
Objectives: Ventilator-induced lung injury has substantive impact on mortality of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although low tidal volume ventilation has been shown to reduce mortality, clinical benefits of open-lung strategy are controversial. In this study, we investigated the impact of two distinct forms of ventilator-induced lung injury, i.e., volutrauma and atelectrauma, on the progression of lung injury and inflammation, in particular alveolar and systemic cytokine production.Design: Ex vivo study.Setting: University research laboratory.Subjects: C57BL/6 mice.Interventions: Isolated, buffer-perfused lungs were allocated to one of three ventilatory protocols for 3 hours: control group received low tidal volume (7 mL/kg) with positive end-expiratory pressure (5 cm H2O) and regular sustained inflation; high-stretch group received high tidal volume (30–32 mL/kg) with positive end-expiratory pressure (3 cm H2O) and sustained inflation; and atelectasis group received the same tidal volume as control but neither positive end-expiratory pressure nor sustained inflation.Measurements and Main Results: Both injurious ventilatory protocols developed comparable levels of physiological injury and pulmonary edema, measured by respiratory system mechanics and lavage fluid protein. High-stretch induced marked increases in proinflammatory cytokines in perfusate and lung lavage fluid, compared to control. In contrast, atelectasis had no effect on perfusate cytokines compared to control but did induce some up-regulation of lavage cytokines. Depletion of monocytes marginated within the lung microvasculature, achieved by pretreating mice with IV liposome-encapsulated clodronate, significantly attenuated perfusate cytokine levels, especially tumor necrosis factor, in the high-stretch, but not atelectasis group.Conclusions: Volutrauma (high-stretch), but not atelectrauma (atelectasis), directly activates monocytes within the pulm
Journal articlePalazzo S, James-Veldsman E, Wall C, et al., 2014,
Consensus regarding optimal burns intensive care (BICU) patient management is lacking. This study aimed to assess whether ventilation strategies, cardiovascular support and sedation in BICU patients have changed over time, and whether this affects outcome. A retrospective observational study comparing two 12-patient BICU cohorts (2005/06 and 2010/11) was undertaken. Demographic and admission characteristics, ventilation parameters, sedation, fluid resuscitation, cardiovascular support and outcome (length of stay, mortality) data were collected from patient notes. Data was analysed using T-tests, Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. In our study cohort groups were equivalent in demographic and admission parameters. There were equal ventilator-free days in the two cohorts 10 ± 12.7 vs. 13.3 ± 12.2 ventilator free days; P = 0.447). The 2005/06 cohort were mechanically ventilated more often than in 2010/11 cohort (568 ventilator days/1000 patient BICU days vs. 206 ventilator days/1000 patient BICU days; P = 0.001). The 2005/06 cohort were ventilated less commonly in tracheostomy group/endotracheal tube spontaneous (17.8% vs. 26%; P = 0.001) and volume-controlled modes (34.4% vs. 40.8%; P = 0.001). Patients in 2010/11 cohort were more heavily sedated (P = 0.001) with more long-acting sedative drug use (P = 0.001) than the 2005/06 cohort, fluid administration was equivalent. Patient outcome did not vary. Inhalational injury patients were ventilated in volume-controlled (44.5% vs. 28.1%; P = 0.001) and pressure-controlled modes (18.2% vs. 9.5%; P = 0.001) more frequently than those without. Outcome did not vary. This study showed there has been shift away from mechanical ventilation, with increased use of tracheostomy/tracheal tube airway spontaneous ventilation. Inhalation injury patients require more ventilatory support though patient outcomes do not differ. Prospective trials are required to establish which strategies confer benefit
Journal articleDunning JW, Merson L, Rohde GGU, et al., 2014,
Journal articleGordon AC, Mason AJ, Perkins GD, et al., 2014,
Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of VAsopressin versus Noradrenaline as Initial therapy in Septic sHock (VANISH), BMJ Open, Vol: 4
Introduction Vasopressin is an alternative vasopressor in the management of septic shock. It spares catecholamine use but whether it improves outcome remains uncertain. Current evidence suggests that it may be most effective if used early and possibly in conjunction with corticosteroids. This trial will compare vasopressin to noradrenaline as initial vasopressor in the management of adult septic shock and investigate whether there is an interaction of vasopressin with corticosteroids.Methods and analysis This is a multicentre, factorial (2×2), randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 412 patients will be recruited from multiple UK intensive care units and randomised to receive vasopressin (0–0.06 U/min) or noradrenaline (0–12 µg/min) as a continuous intravenous infusion as initial vasopressor therapy. If maximum infusion rates of this first study drug are reached, the patient will be treated with either hydrocortisone (initially 50 mg intravenous bolus six-hourly) or placebo, before additional open-label catecholamine vasopressors are prescribed. The primary outcome of the trial will be the difference in renal failure-free days between treatment groups. Secondary outcomes include need for renal replacement therapy, survival rates, other organ failures and resource utilisation.Ethics and dissemination The trial protocol and information sheets have received a favourable opinion from the Oxford A Research Ethics Committee (12/SC/0014). There is an independent Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee and independent membership of the Trial Steering Committee including patient and public involvement. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings.Trial registration number: ISRCTN 20769191 and EudraCT 2011-005363-24.
Journal articleZhao H, Yoshida A, Xiao W, et al., 2013,
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