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  • Journal article
    Al Ghafri SZS, Forte E, Maitland GC, Rodriguez-Henríquez JJ, Trusler JPMet al., 2014,

    Experimental and Modeling Study of the Phase Behavior of (Methane + CO2 + Water) Mixtures

    , The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol: 118, Pages: 14461-14478, ISSN: 1520-5207
  • Journal article
    Strbac G, Pollitt M, Konstantinidis CV, Konstantelos I, Moreno R, Newbery D, Green Ret al., 2014,

    Electricity transmission arrangements in Great Britain: Time for change?

    , ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 73, Pages: 298-311, ISSN: 0301-4215
  • Journal article
    Boot-Handford ME, Abanades JC, Anthony EJ, Blunt MJ, Brandani S, Mac Dowell N, Fernandez JR, Ferrari M-C, Gross R, Hallett JP, Haszeldine RS, Heptonstall P, Lyngfelt A, Makuch Z, Mangano E, Porter RTJ, Pourkashanian M, Rochelle GT, Shah N, Yao JG, Fennell PSet al., 2014,

    Carbon capture and storage update

    , ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, Vol: 7, Pages: 130-189, ISSN: 1754-5692
  • Journal article
    Mac Dowell N, Llovell F, Sun N, Hallett JP, George A, Hunt PA, Welton T, Simmons BA, Vega LFet al., 2014,

    New Experimental Density Data and soft-SAFT Models of Alkylimidazolium ([CnC₁im](+)) Chloride (Cl-), Methylsulfate ([MeSO4](-)), and Dimethylphosphate ([Me2PO4](-)) Based Ionic Liquids

    , JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, Vol: 118, Pages: 6206-6221, ISSN: 1520-6106
  • Journal article
    Bailey L, Lekkerkerker HNW, Maitland GC, 2014,

    Rheology modification of montmorillonite dispersions by colloidal silica

    , RHEOLOGICA ACTA, Vol: 53, Pages: 373-384, ISSN: 0035-4511
  • Journal article
    Green R, Staffell I, Vasilakos N, 2014,

    Divide and Conquer? k-Means Clustering of Demand Data Allows Rapid and Accurate Simulations of the British Electricity System

    , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, Vol: 61, Pages: 251-260, ISSN: 0018-9391
  • Journal article
    Chen L, Sharifzadeh M, Mac Dowell N, Welton T, Shah N, Hallett JPet al., 2014,

    Inexpensive ionic liquids: [HSO₄]¯-based solvent production at bulk scale

    , Green Chemistry, Vol: 16, Pages: 3098-3106, ISSN: 1744-1560

    Through more than two decades’ intensive research, ionic liquids (ILs) have exhibited significant potential in various areas of research at laboratory scales. This suggests that ILs-based industrial process development will attract increasing attention in the future. However, there is one core issue that stands in the way of commercialisation: the high cost of most laboratory-synthesized ILs will limit application to small-scale, specialized processes. In this work, we evaluate the economic feasibility of two ILs synthesized via acid–base neutralization using two scenarios for each: conventional and intensification processing. Based upon our initial models, we determined the cost price of each IL and compared the energy requirements of each process option. The cost prices of triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate and 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate are estimated as $1.24 kg−1 and $2.96–5.88 kg−1, respectively. This compares favourably with organic solvents such as acetone or ethyl acetate, which sell for $1.30–$1.40 kg−1. Moreover, the raw materials contribute the overwhelming majority of this cost and the intensified process using a compact plate reactor is more economical due to lower energy requirements. These results indicate that ionic liquids are not necessarily expensive, and therefore large-scale IL-based processes can become a commercial reality.

  • Report
    Green RJ, Staffell I, 2014,

    The Impact of Government Interventions on Investment in the GB Electricity Market

    , Brussels, Publisher: European Commission

    Report to DG Competition of the European Commission in the State Aid case concerning the Hinkley Point C nuclear power station

  • Journal article
    Mukherjee S, Kumar P, Hosseini A, Yang A, Fennell Pet al., 2014,

    Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    , ENERGY & FUELS, Vol: 28, Pages: 1028-1040, ISSN: 0887-0624
  • Conference paper
    Al-Menhali A, Reynolds C, Lai P, Niu B, Nicholls N, Crawshaw J, Krevor Set al., 2014,

    Advanced reservoir characterization for CO<inf>2</inf> storage

    , Pages: 503-512

    Injection of CO2 into the subsurface is of interest for CO 2 storage and enhanced oil recovery (EOR). There are, however, major unresolved questions around the multiphase flow physics and reactive processes that will take place after CO2 is injected, particularly in carbonate rock reservoirs. For example, the wetting properties of CO2-brine- rock systems will impact the efficiency of EOR operations and CO2 storage but reported contact angles range widely from strongly water-wet to intermediate wet. Similar uncertainties exist for properties including the relative permeability and the impact of chemical reaction on flow. In this presentation we present initial results from laboratory studies investigating the physics of multiphase flow and reactive transport for CO2-brine systems. We use traditional and novel core flooding techniques and x-ray imaging to resolve uncertainties around the CO2-brine contact angle, relative permeability, residual trapping, and feedbacks between chemical reaction and flow in carbonate rocks. Copyright 2014, International Petroleum Technology Conference.

  • Book chapter
    Green RJ, Mulugetta Y, Zhang ZX, 2014,

    Sustainable Energy Policy

    , Handbook of Sustainable Development, 2nd Edition, Editors: Atkinson, Dietz, Neumayer, Agarwala, Cheltenham, Publisher: Edward Elgar, Pages: 532-550, ISBN: 978-1-78254-469-2
  • Journal article
    Al Ghafri SZ, Maitland GC, Trusler JPM, 2013,

    Experimental and modeling study of the phase behavior of synthetic crude oil + CO2

    , Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol: 365, Pages: 20-40, ISSN: 0378-3812

    A full understanding of the phase behavior of CO2–hydrocarbon mixtures at reservoir conditions is essential for the proper design, construction and operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. While equilibrium data for binary CO2–hydrocarbon mixtures are plentiful, equilibrium data and validated equations of state having reasonable predictive capability for multi-component CO2–hydrocarbon mixtures are limited. In this work, a new synthetic apparatus was constructed to measure the phase behavior of systems containing CO2 and multicomponent hydrocarbons at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The apparatus consisted of a thermostated variable-volume view cell driven by a computer-controlled servo motor system, and equipped with a sapphire window for visual observation. Two calibrated syringe pumps were used for quantitative fluid injection. The maximum operating pressure and temperature were 40 MPa and 473.15 K, respectively. The apparatus was validated by means of isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium measurement on (CO2 + heptane), the results of which were found to be in good agreement with literature data.In this work, we report experimental measurements of the phase behavior and density of (CO2 + synthetic crude oil) mixtures. The ‘dead’ oil contained a total of 17 components including alkanes, branched-alkanes, cyclo-alkanes, and aromatics. Solution gas (0.81 methane + 0.13 ethane + 0.06 propane) was added to obtain live synthetic crudes with gas-oil ratios of either 58 or 160. Phase equilibrium and density measurements are reported for the ‘dead’ oil and the two ‘live’ oils under the addition of CO2. The measurements were carried out at temperatures of 298.15, 323.15, 373.15 and 423.15 K and at pressures up to 36 MPa, and included vapor–liquid, liquid–liquid and vapor–liquid–liquid equilibrium conditions. The results are qualitatively

  • Journal article
    Ciotta F, Trusler JPM, Vesovic V, 2013,

    Extended hard-sphere model for the viscosity of dense fluids

    , Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol: 363, Pages: 239-247, ISSN: 0378-3812

    An extended hard-sphere model is reported that may be applied to correlate and predict the viscosity of gases, liquids and supercritical fluids. The method is based on the hard-sphere model of Dymond and Assael and uses their roughness factors and molar core volumes to relate reduced viscosity to a universal function of reduced volume. The extended model behaves correctly in the limit of low densities and offers improved accuracy at high densities. The new universal reference function was determined from a large database of experimental viscosities for alkanes extending up to reduced densities of 0.84. It has been tested by correlating the viscosity of two high-viscosity liquids not used in the development of the universal function and has shown to perform satisfactorily up to reduced densities of approximately 0.9.

  • Journal article
    Maitland G, 2013,

    Towards a low-carbon fossil fuels future

    , TCE The Chemical Engineer, Pages: 32-37, ISSN: 0302-0797
  • Journal article
    Giarola S, Bezzo F, Shah N, 2013,

    A risk management approach to the economic and environmental strategic design of ethanol supply chains

    , BIOMASS & BIOENERGY, Vol: 58, Pages: 31-51, ISSN: 0961-9534
  • Report
    Green RJ, 2013,

    The Future Role of Energy in Manufacturing

    , London, Publisher: Government Office for Science

    This report considers the present and future role of energy in manufacturing, in the context of the need to deliver a low-carbon economy. That need presents two threats to UK-based manufacturers, and two opportunities. The first threat is that the price of energy in the UK will rise, compared to the cost faced by competitor firms abroad, placing UK manufacturers at a significant disadvantage. The second threat is that a low-carbon electricity supply will be unreliable, and that the cost of power cuts will rise. The first opportunity is related to this threat – manufacturing sites that can reduce their electricity imports at times when the power system is under stress are already paid for doing so. The need for such demand-side management, the options for providing it, and the price paid are all likely to increase over time. The second opportunity is that new low-carbon products will be needed – not least in the transport sector – and UK-based firms may be able to break into these new markets.

  • Journal article
    Napp TA, Gambhir A, Hills TP, Florin N, Fennell PSet al., 2013,

    A review of the technologies, economics and policy instruments for decarbonising energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    , Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews

    Industrial processes account for one-third of global energy demand. The iron and steel, cement and refining sectors are particularly energy-intensive, together making up over 30% of total industrial energy consumption and producing millions of tonnes of CO2 per year. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the technologies for reducing emissions from industrial processes by collating information from a wide range of sources. The paper begins with a summary of energy consumption and emissions in the industrial sector. This is followed by a detailed description of process improvements in the three sectors mentioned above, as well as cross-cutting technologies that are relevant to many industries. Lastly, a discussion of the effectiveness of government policies to facilitate the adoption of those technologies is presented. Whilst there has been significant improvement in energy efficiency in recent years, cost-effective energy efficient options still remain. Key energy efficiency measures include upgrading process units to Best Practice, installing new electrical equipment such as pumps and even replacing the process completely. However, these are insufficient to achieve the deep carbon reductions required if we are to avoid dangerous climate change. The paper concludes with recommendations for action to achieve further decarbonisation.

  • Journal article
    Staffell I, Green R, 2013,

    The cost of domestic fuel cell micro-CHP systems

    , International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol: 38, Pages: 1088-1102, ISSN: 0360-3199
  • Journal article
    Dean C, Hills T, Florin N, Dugwell D, Fennell PSet al., 2013,

    Integrating Calcium Looping CO2 Capture with the Manufacture of Cement

    , GHGT-11, Vol: 37, Pages: 7078-7090, ISSN: 1876-6102
  • Journal article
    Tamburic B, Dechatiwongse P, Zemichael FW, Maitland GC, Hellgardt Ket al., 2013,

    Process and reactor design for biophotolytic hydrogen production

    , PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 15, Pages: 10783-10794, ISSN: 1463-9076
  • Conference paper
    Pini R, Krevor S, Krause M, Benson Set al., 2013,

    Capillary heterogeneity in sandstone rocks during CO2/water core-flooding experiments

    , International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Technologies (GHGT), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 5473-5479, ISSN: 1876-6102
  • Conference paper
    Krevor S, Pini R, Benson SM, 2013,

    Measurement of the multiphase flow properties of the CO2/brine system for carbon sequestration

    , International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Technologies (GHGT), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 4499-4503, ISSN: 1876-6102
  • Journal article
    Hayes-Labruto L, Schillebeeckx SJD, Workman M, Shah Net al., 2013,

    Contrasting Perspectives on China's Rare Earth Policies: Reframing the Debate through a Stakeholder Lens

    , Energy Policy

    This article critically compares China’s rare earth policy with perspectives upheld in the rest of the world (ROW). We introduce rare earth elements and their importance for energy and present how China and the ROW are framing the policy debate. We find strongly dissonant views with regards to motives for foreign direct investment, China’s two-tiered pricing structure and its questionable innovation potential. Using the metaphor of “China Inc.”, we compare the Chinese government to a socially responsible corporation that aims to balance the needs of its internal stakeholders with the demands from a resource-dependent world. We find that China’s internal stakeholders have more power and legitimacy in the REE debate than the ROW and reconceptualise various possible mitigation strategies that could change current international policy and market dynamics. As such, we aim to reframe the perspectives that seem to govern the West and argue in favour of policy formation that explicitly acknowledges China’s triple bottom line ambitions and encourages the ROW to engage with China in a more nuanced manner.

  • Journal article
    Green RJ, 2012,

    How Denmark Manages its Wind Power

    , IAEE Energy Forum, Vol: 21, Pages: 9-11
  • Journal article
    Li X, Boek ES, Maitland GC, Trusler JPMet al., 2012,

    Interfacial Tension of (Brines+CO2): CaCl2(aq), MgCl2(aq), and Na2SO4(aq) at Temperatures between (343 and 423) K, Pressures between (2 and 50) MPa, and Molalities of (0.5 to 5)

    , JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING DATA, Vol: 57, Pages: 1369-1375, ISSN: 0021-9568
  • Journal article
    Fennell PS, Florin N, Napp T, Hills Tet al., 2012,

    CCS from industrial sources

    , Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies, Pages: 17-17, ISSN: 2220-2765
  • Journal article
    Green R, Yatchew A, 2012,

    Support Schemes for Renewable Energy: An Economic Analysis

    , Economics of Energy and Environmental Policy, Vol: 1, Pages: 83-98
  • Journal article
    Pini R, Krevor SCM, Benson SM, 2012,

    Capillary pressure and heterogeneity for the CO₂/water system in sandstone rocks at reservoir conditions

    , Advances in Water Resources, Vol: 38, Pages: 48-59
  • Journal article
    de Wijn AS, Riesco N, Jackson G, Trusler JPM, Vesovic Vet al., 2012,

    Viscosity of liquid mixtures: The Vesovic-Wakeham method for chain molecules

    , JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 136, ISSN: 0021-9606

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