Due to COVID-19, staff and students in the Department of Earth Science and Engineering are working and studying remotely.

For latest updates on the situation, including messages to staff and students, guidance on remote working, and support for mental and physical health, visit the College's COVID-19 information pages.

To support each other during this time, and maintain our values the Graduate Society, ESE Grad Soc, is collating information, recipes, exercises and competitions. These are sent out each Monday, and will be added here.

Get Talking

If you want to share a message with the ESE community, just post it on Twitter with the hashtag #ESEGetTalking and @ESEGradSoc or get in touch with @ImperialRSM, and we’ll retweet as many as possible. We have never needed each other more. So, come on ESE, get talking. Daily coffee at 11am and weekly Fribes are happening remotely, email GradSoc for the link to join. 

ESE Updates

In these times, as we continue with working remotely, it is important to stay connected.

Sometimes however, this can feel overwhelming. This new format newsletter from the Department, which collates various information and news that in the past has come separately, aims to keep you updated with the Department and colleagues' news, useful information and reminders. You will also find a wealth of information on the College Covid-19 Updates and Guidance webpage

Weekly Photo Competition

Each week we run a photo competion for ESE Staff, Post-Doctoral Researchers, and PhD Students, with themes spanning everything from "ESE Pets" to "Working from Home Views" to "Lockdown Meals". See some of the winners below!

Plants Winner - "Things Are Looking Up" by Ahmed M Selem

Fossils Winner - "Opal Ammonite (ft. suture lines!)" by Sinead Lyster

Fossils Runner Up - "Freckles, Flecks, and Speckles" by Zainab Titus

Working from Home Runner-Up - "Making the most of the sunshine" by Evie Baker

Rock Formation Winner - "The Best Rock Formation I could think of- I'm not a Geologist!" by Diego Mesa-Peña

ESE Pet Winner - Josh Rasera (and Murphy)

Lockdown Meals Runner Up - "Egg-squisite Curry" by  Kartikeya Sangwan

Working from Home Winner - "Offline Work in the Warmest Hours" by Robin Thomas

Plants Runner Up - "Still Alive" by Rayssa Martins Pimentel

Rock Formation Runner Up - "The Queen of All Salt Mines, Realmonte, Italy" by Sian Evans

Lockdown Hobbies Runner Up - "Propagating Baby Pancake Plants in Prosecco Glasses" by Sinead Lyster

Workout of the Week

Maintaining a fit and healthy lifestyle may prove to be a tough challenge during the lockdown, so it is understandable that it may taken a back seat over the past few weeks. Many people have got in the habit of regular walks or cycles, making the most of the once-daily outdoor exericse allowance. Exercising is a great way to improve your mental health and, with a little more time on our hands and some energy to burn, there is no time like the present to try some home workouts. 

Or see the NHS online exercise videos

Release Your Stress by Colouring

Yes, it’s long been a joke that all geologists do is colour in. But, it can’t be denied, colouring in is rather fun. Turning stress into art is as simple as printing out some free colouring pages or cracking open an adult colouring book, like the popular Secret Garden book. You might like to try a colouring sheet of the Flatirons in Boulder, Colorado ‌(Feel free to send us your finished masterpieces). 

 

Lockdown Recipes

Crumble Bars

Crumble Bars

These store-cupboard friendly crumble bars are very adaptable, and a perfect baking project to have up your sleeve during a lockdown. Don’t have fresh or frozen fruit? Substitute 360g of jam for the berries and icing sugar. 

Ingredients
  • 120g butter or coconut oil
  • 360g flour of your choice (plain, wholegrain, and gluten-free flours all work fine)
  • 180g rolled oats
  • 120g brown sugar
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 tsp baking powder
  • 360g fresh or frozen berries
  • 60g icing sugar
Method
  1. Preheat the oven to 180°C. Line the bottom of a 9x13 inch baking tray with baking paper or foil, leaving an overhang on each end. Lightly coat the paper and pan with cooking spray.
  2. Melt the butter or coconut oil. In a bowl, mix together the flour, oats, brown sugar, salt, and baking powder. Pour in the melted butter and mix till thoroughly combined. The mixture will be crumbly (it is a crumble, after all). Press half the flour-butter mixture into the tray to create a level crust. Place the crust in the preheated oven for 20 minutes, until golden brown.
  3. Remove from the oven and let cool slightly. Toss together the berries and the icing sugar, then evenly distribute them over the top of the crust. Sprinkle the remaining flour-butter mixture evenly over the top of the berries. Return the tray to the oven and bake for an additional 30 minutes, until the berries are bubbling in the middle of the tray and the topping is lightly browned.
  4. Let cool completely before cutting. Enjoy! 

No Churn Pomegranate Ice Cream

No Churn Pomegranate Ice Cream

Summer is almost here and that means only one thing – it’s ice cream season! This week’s recipe comes from Nigella Lawson's website.

Made with just 4 ingredients there is no need for any fancy equipment, ice cream makers, or special tools!

In the words of Nigella, “this delicate pink ice cream tastes like fragrant, sherbety heaven”.

Ingredients
  • 3 pomegranates
  • 1 lime
  • 175g icing sugar
  • 500ml double cream
Method
  1. Juice two of the pomegranates and the lime and strain the juices into a bowl. Save the third pomegranate to use the seeds only.
  2. Add the icing sugar and whisk to dissolve.
  3. Whisk in the double cream and keep whisking until soft peaks form in the pale pink cream. (If using American heavy-cream or whipping cream in other countries, whisk your cream in a bowl first, until it reaches soft peaks, then whisk in the other ingredients and continue whisking until thick again.)
  4. Spoon and smooth the ice cream into the airtight container of your choice and freeze for at least 4 hours, or overnight.
  5. Scatter with some pomegranate seeds before you eat it.

Note: You can use 175ml of pure pomegranate juice, such as POM, in place of juicing the two pomegranates.

Nigella’s website has lots of other recipes for different flavours of no-churn ice cream, or you can invent your own flavours! Simply make the basic vanilla ice cream, sprinkle in a handful of add-ins and freeze as directed. Or swap the vanilla for your favourite extracts.

 

Healthy Baked Falafel

Healthy Baked Falafel

This week’s recipe comes from TV chef Tom Kerridge's series "Tom Kerridge's Lose Weight For Good".

This easy baked falafel recipe is made with fresh herbs, garlic and spices.


Ingredients

For the Falafel:

  • 1 tsp olive oil
  • 2 small onions (200g/7oz in total), finely chopped
  • 2 x 400g tins chickpeas, rinsed and drained
  • 4 garlic cloves, grated
  • 3 tsp ground cumin
  • 2 tsp ground coriander
  • 2 tsp sea salt flakes
  • 30g/1oz coriander leaves, roughly chopped
  • 30g/1oz flatleaf parsley leaves, roughly chopped
  • 40g/1½oz plain flour
  • freshly ground black pepper
  • olive oil spray

For the Tzatziki:

  • 200ml/7oz 0% fat plain yoghurt
  • 140g/5oz piece cucumber, grated
  • 1 small garlic clove, finely grated
  • 2 tbsp finely chopped mint leaves
  • pinch sea salt
  • pinch granulated sweetener (optional)

Method

  1. Preheat the oven to 230C/210C Fan/Gas 8 and line a baking tray with baking parchment.
  2. Heat the olive oil in small frying pan over a medium heat. Add the onions and cook for about 10 minutes, or until softened and starting to brown (add a splash of water if they start to stick). Remove from the heat and leave to cool.
  3. Put the onions, chickpeas, garlic, spices, salt, chopped herbs, flour and some pepper in a food processor. Pulse until the mixture is fairly smooth, stopping every so often to scrape down the sides with a spatula. You want to retain some texture but the paste should be able to hold together.
  4. Divide the mixture into 18 equal pieces and shape into patties. Place on the prepared baking tray and spray the patties with 10 sprays of oil. Cook on the top shelf of the oven for 20–25 minutes, or until golden-brown.
  5. For the tzatziki, put the yoghurt into a small bowl. Squeeze the grated cucumber to remove excess liquid, then add to the yoghurt with the garlic, mint, salt and sweetener. Mix well.
  6. Lower the oven setting to 200C/180C Fan/Gas 6 and move the tray of falafel to the bottom shelf of the oven. Bake for a further 20–25 minutes, or until cooked through. Sprinkle with a little salt and serve with the tzatziki.

Tips: Don’t forget to give the cucumber a squeeze to prevent the tzatziki being too wet!

Cherry and White Chocolate Bake

Cherry and White Chocolate Bake

This recipe comes from Jack Monroe’s website ‘Cooking On A Bootstrap’, and makes 9 generous pieces from 21p each

(Can be made vegan by replacing the eggs with apple sauce and using vegan butter and chocolate).

Jack Monroe, who goes by @BootStrapCook on social media, is asking people to send in photos of the random ingredients they have in their store-cupboards with the hashtag #JackMonroesLockdownLarder, to help them come up with a plan for what to have for dinner. Describing it as “Ready, Steady, Cook meets 28 Days Later”, it’s something we never knew we’d need. Until now... There are some really great recipes and tips, all designed for cooking on a budget - check them out.

Ingredients
  • 250g butter or baking block, 55p (55p/250g, Tesco)
  • 200g sugar, 13p (65p/kg, Tesco)
  • 3 eggs, 39p (£2/15 mixed weight free-range, Tesco)
  • 200g self-raising flour, 6p (45p/1.5kg, Stockwell at Tesco)
  • 120g frozen cherries, 50p (£2/480g, Tesco)
  • 100g white chocolate, 30p (30p/100g, Ms Mollys at Tesco)
Method
  1. Preheat your oven to 180°C/350°F/Gas Mark 4, and ensure there is a shelf in the centre or just below it. 
  1. Lightly – and I mean very lightly, as this is a butter-rich cake so barely needs it- grease a 20cm x 20cm small cake tin. Or thereabouts; exact measurements aren’t necessary, but bear in mind that a slightly larger tin will cook faster as the traybake will be more shallow, and a slightly smaller one will take slightly longer as the batter will be more dense, so if deviating from the 20×20, adjust your timings to take it into account. 
  1. If you’re using frozen cherries and they’re still, well, frozen, pop them into a microwave proof bowl and zap them at full power for 90 seconds to defrost. Remove and stand to one side. (The cherries, that is, not you. Come back! Oh god, I’m turning into my Dad already.) 
  1. Dice your butter into roughly 2cm x 2cm cubes and pop it into a large mixing bowl. Add the sugar and one of the eggs, and mash together with a fork to soften the butter, until you’re able to beat it together into a sloppy buttercream consistency. Add the other two eggs and beat in well, then mix in the flour until well combined into a thick but smooth batter. 
  1. Roughly chop your chocolate into small chunks, and tip into the batter along with the cherries. Fold in briskly, then scrape the whole lot into the prepared tin. Smooth the top with the back of your spoon, making sure the batter is pushed into all four corners, then place into the oven. 
  1. Bake in the centre of the oven for 50 minutes, or until a sharp knife inserted in the centre comes out clean. Remove and allow to cool in the tin for 10 minutes to firm up, before cutting into 9 equally sized pieces (or unequally sized, depending on how much you want to share it!). Serve warm or cold.

Leftovers (ha!) will keep in an airtight container or food storage bag for up to three days, or in the freezer for three months. Defrost and warm through to piping hot to serve for best results.

Salad Bag Pesto

Salad Bag Pesto 

This recipe comes from Jack Monroe’s website ‘Cooking On A Bootstrap’, and this recipe serves 6 at 13p each

 According to Jack’s blog, bagged salad is one of the most wasted foods in Britain, with over half of it ending up in landfill. Bags of salad can be expensive to buy full price, but can often be found in the reduced chiller at the supermarket.

Ingredients
  • 150g bag of salad, (62p)
  • 1 fat clove of garlic or 1/2 tsp garlic paste, 2p (69p/4 bulbs)
  • 60ml sunflower oil, 7p (£1.10/1l))
  • 20ml lemon juice, 4p (39p/250ml)
  • a pinch of salt, (<1p)
  • a pinch of pepper, <1p (43p/jar) 
Method
  1. Finely chop your salad into smithereens with a heavy, sharp knife. If you have a bullet blender or food processor you may find it easier to bung them all in here, but (on a good hands day) there is a vigorous satisfaction in grinding a blade repeatedly into a bunch of leaves until they resemble a small pile of dust.
  1. Pop the tiny pieces of leaf into a bowl. Peel and finely chop your garlic, if using fresh cloves, and add that too, or a teaspoon of garlic paste
  1. Add the oil, lemon juice, salt and pepper and mix well. Store in a jar in the fridge for up to 4 days, or in the freezer for a few months.
  1. You may want to add finely grated cheese to it to make something more closely resembling a traditional pesto, which would be a marvellous addition.

Serving suggestion: warm over spaghetti with a couple of very finely chopped tomatoes folded through and a smattering of extra pepper.

Veggie Chilli

Veggie Chilli

This week’s recipe comes from Jamie Oliver's website and is a delicious veggie alternative to traditional chilli con carne that can be tweaked depending on what you have available in your cupboards.

  • Use butternut squash or regular potatoes instead of sweet potatoes.
  • No onions? Try using a leek or a few spring onions.
  • Cayenne pepper has been used here, but paprika would be equally delicious.

Jamie’s show “Keep Cooking And Carry On”, on Channel 4, features easy-to-follow recipes tailored for the nation on lockdown.
The show is packed with easy and delicious recipes that the whole family can enjoy, plus lots of ideas for simple swaps and ways you can make the recipes work with what you’ve got. 

Ingredients 

(Serves 4)

  • 500g sweet potatoes
  • 1 level tsp cayenne pepper, plus extra for sprinkling
  • 1 heaped tsp ground cumin, plus extra for sprinkling
  • 1 level tsp ground cinnamon, plus extra for sprinkling
  • Olive oil
  • 1 onion
  • 2 mixed-colour peppers
  • 1 bunch fresh coriander (30g)
  • 2 garlic cloves
  • 2 fresh mixed-colour chillies
  • 2 x 400g tins beans, such as kidney, chickpea, pinto, cannellini
  • 2 x 400g tins plum tomatoes
  • Lime or lemon juice, or vinegar, to taste

Method

  1. Preheat the oven to 200C/400F/Gas 6. Peel and chop the sweet potatoes into bite-sized chunks, then place on to a baking tray.
  2. Sprinkle with a pinch each of cayenne, cumin, cinnamon, salt and black pepper, drizzle with oil then toss to coat. Roast for 45 minutes to 1 hour, or until golden and tender.
  3. Peel and roughly chop the onion. Halve, deseed and roughly chop the peppers, then peel and finely slice the garlic. Pick the coriander leaves, finely chopping the stalks. Deseed and finely chop the chillies.
  4. Meanwhile, put 2 tablespoons of oil in a large pan over a medium-high heat, then add the onion, peppers and garlic, and cook for 5 minutes, stirring regularly.
  5. Add the coriander stalks, chillies and spices and cook for a further 5 to 10 minutes, or until softened and starting to caramelise, stirring occasionally.
  6. Add the beans and the juice. Tip in the tomatoes, breaking them up with the back of a spoon, then stir well.
  7. Bring to the boil, then reduce the heat to medium-low and leave to tick away for 25 to 30 minutes, or until thickened and reduced – keep an eye on it and add a splash of water to loosen if needed.
  8. Stir the roasted sweet potato through the chilli with most of the coriander leaves, then taste and adjust the seasoning if needed.
  9. Finish with a squeeze of lime or lemon juice or a swig of vinegar to taste, then scatter over the remaining coriander.
  10. Delicious served with yoghurt or soured cream, guacamole and rice or tortilla chips.

Chocolate Fondant

Chocolate Fondant

This week’s recipe comes from David Lebovitz’s online blog, and was written by chef Emily whilst they are on lockdown in Paris.

Now is the time to mess up the kitchen, leave edges rough, make substitutions and mistakes, and enjoy the process!

Ingredients 

  • 100g butter
  • 100g chocolate, chopped
  • 130g sugar
  • 50g plain flour
  • 3 large eggs
  • Pinch salt

Method

  1. Set the oven to 180C (350F) and butter 6 ramekins (not sure what size mine are but they hold 130ml water when filled to the top).
  2. Gently melt the butter and chocolate together in a heatproof bowl, either over a saucepan of boiling water or in the microwave.
  3. Stir together, then whisk in the sugar, flour, eggs and salt (either with an electric whisk or just vigorously by hand).
  4. Fill the ramekins until ¾ full and bake for 12-14 minutes, until the tops are squishy but set (like an undercooked cake). If you’re making ahead, you can also pop the mixture in the fridge and cook later (about 14-16 minutes in the oven if they are cold).
  5. Serve with vanilla ice cream if you have it!

Vegan Sweet Potato and Chickpea Sausage Rolls

Vegan Sweet Potato and Chickpea Sausage Rolls

This week’s recipe comes from Tamsin at the online blog ‘Cup Full of Kale’.
These bite sized vegan sweet potato and chickpea vegan sausage rolls are flaky and flavoursome!
Shop bought puff pastry is delicious (and usually vegan!) so there is no need to make it!


Ingredients

(Makes 12)

  • 2 sweet potatoes
  • 1 tin chickpeas
  • 1 tbsp tomato puree
  • 1-2 tsp harissa paste
  • 1/2 tsp ground cumin
  • 1/2 tsp garlic granules
  • Handful fresh coriander
  • 1 flax egg (1 flax egg = 1 tbsp flaxseed mixed with 2.5 tbsp water. Leave to thicken.)
  • 1 block puff pastry
  • 1/2 tbsp vegan butter
  • 1 tsp poppy seeds
  • 1 tsp sesame seeds

Method
  1. Preheat the oven to 180C/350F.
  2. Peel the sweet potatoes and cut into small pieces about 2cm. Drizzle with a bit of oil, salt and pepper and place in the oven.
  3. Take your puff pastry out the fridge and leave to rest until you are ready to use it.
  4. In a cup/small bowl mix make your flax egg by mixing 1 tbsp of flaxseed with 2.5 tbsp of water.
  5. After about 15-20 minutes take the sweet potato out of the oven. It should be soft and starting to brown and crisp on the edges.
  6. Place the sweet potato, chickpeas, tomato puree, harissa, cumin, garlic and flax egg in a bowl. Mix with the back of a fork or a hand processor. You want it to be mainly smooth with a few lumps for texture.
  7. Finely chop the coriander, add and stir to combine.
  8. Place the puff pastry sheet on a floured surface or chopping board, it should be rectangle in size. Cut it down the middle lengthwise so you have two rectangle shapes.
  9. Divide the sausage mixture in two and place half each about 2cm in from the longest side of each piece of pastry.
  10. Now you are going to gently roll the pastry over the sausage filling until you reach the other side. Do this for both pieces and make sure the seam is on the underside.
  11. Line the two sausage roll pieces together and cut across the middle so you now have 4 pieces. Then cut each piece into 3 so that you have 12 sausage rolls in total.
  12. Place them onto a lined baking sheet.
  13. Melt the butter and brush each sausage roll and sprinkle on some of the poppy and sesame seeds. Cut a small slice in the top of each sausage roll.
  14. Place in the oven for 20 minutes until cooked and golden brown.
  15. Serve straight away or eat cold. You can also reheat them for about 15 minutes at 150C/300F.

 

Healthy Granola

The Very Best Healthy Granola

This recipe comes from the ‘Cookie and Kate’ blog, which is all about celebrating good food—"real, sustainable food that delights the senses and nourishes the body”.

This granola makes a wonderful snack or breakfast (add your milk of choice and maybe some fresh fruit). It also stores beautifully, so is great for lockdown!
The recipe is also a far more healthy granola option, since it’s made with whole grains, unrefined oil and naturally sweetened. You just can’t beat freshly baked granola packed with delicious and good-for-you ingredients.
Plus, homemade granola is super easy to make. You’ll only need one bowl and some basic ingredients. 

Ingredients
  • 340g old-fashioned rolled oats (use certified gluten-free oats for gluten-free granola)
  • 190g raw nuts and/or seeds
  • 1 tsp fine-grain sea salt (if you’re using standard table salt, scale back to ¾ teaspoon)
  • 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon
  • 100g melted coconut oil or olive oil
  • 170g maple syrup or honey
  • 1 tsp vanilla extract
  • 85g dried fruit, chopped if large
  • Optional additional mix-ins: 60g of chocolate chips or 40g coconut flakes


Method
  1. Preheat the oven to 180C/350F.
  2. Line a large, rimmed baking tray with baking paper.
  3. In a large mixing bowl, combine the oats, nuts and/or seeds, salt and cinnamon. Stir to blend.
  4. Pour in the oil, maple syrup and/or honey and vanilla. Mix well, until every oat and nut is lightly coated. Pour the granola onto your prepared pan and use a large spoon to spread it in an even layer.
  5. Bake until lightly golden, about 21 to 24 minutes, stirring halfway (for extra-clumpy granola, press the stirred granola down with your spatula to create a more even layer). The granola will further crisp up as it cools.
  6. Let the granola cool completely, undisturbed (at least 45 minutes). Top with the dried fruit (and optional chocolate chips, if using). Break the granola into pieces with your hands if you want to retain big chunks, or stir it around with a spoon if you don’t want extra-clumpy granola.
  7. Store the granola in an airtight container at room temperature for 1 to 2 weeks, or in a sealed freezer bag in the freezer for up to 3 months. The dried fruit can freeze solid, so let it warm to room temperature for 5 to 10 minutes before serving.


Kate's original blog post has information on ingredients, tips for chunky granola, and recipes for granola variations, such as orange and almond granola, gingerbread granola, and cranberry orange granola.

Strawberry and Peach Ice Lollies

Strawberry and Peach Ice Lollies

This week’s recipe comes from the ‘Chew Town’ blog by Amanda Michetti, which is all about “simple recipes with bold flavours”.
As the weather is starting to heat up, we thought what better time for a more summery recipe! These Strawberry and Peach Ice Lollies are little ruby and gold beauties that have a touch of mint included to add a level of sophistication.

So, if you are craving a little sweet something after dinner or something refreshing during the day, and trying to make better food choices (at least for the month of May), why not take some of your favourite fruits and create a layered ice lolly! They are vibrant and fun and you actually feel healthier eating them.

Ingredients
  • 150g fresh strawberries, tops removed

  • 2 ripe peaches
  • 10 large mint leaves
  • 3 tablespoons sugar syrup*
  • 360ml cold water

*To make sugar syrup, combine equal amounts of sugar and water in a saucepan and heat while stirring until sugar has melted completely. Set aside to cool completely.

Method
  1. Place strawberries, 1 tablespoon of the sugar syrup and 120ml water in the body of a blender and blend until the mixture is completely smooth.
  2. Pour into an ice lolly mould filling each cavity up by 1/3. Add ice lolly sticks to the mould and place in your freezer for 10 to 15 minutes until the strawberry layer has started to solidify.
  3. Cut the peaches in half and remove the stones, then roughly slice into wedges. Place the peaches, mint, remaining sugar syrup (2 tablespoons) and remaining water (240ml) into the cleaned blender and blend until the second mixture is completely smooth.
  4. Add the peach mixture to the top of the strawberry layer and return to the freezer until frozen solid.

 

Kate's recipes also include lots of delicious sweet and savoury meals that you can try at home - as well as other ice lolly flavours, including Pomegranate and Lime Ice Pops and Edible Flower and Elderflower Popsicles.

Chocolate & Medjool Date Brownies

Chocolate & Medjool Date Brownies

This week’s recipe – Chocolate & Medjool Date Brownies – comes from 'Golden Tiffin’, a Bengali food blog. 

The special thing about these brownies is that they require no sugar, eggs or butter. The dates are very sweet and fudgy in nature which means that once cooked, the brownies hold their shape just as well as the traditional kind.

Makes 12 brownies in a 10x8 inch baking tray

Ingredients

For the brownies:

  • 150g self raising flour
  • 1 tsp baking powder
  • A pinch of salt
  • 150g (approximately 10) pitted medjool dates, soaked in boiling water for 10 minutes
  • 150g coconut oil (or other alternative)
  • 50g cocoa powder
  • 100g milk chocolate, tempered in a bowl over boiling water

For the ganache:

  • 100g tempered milk chocolate (melted in a bowl over boiling water)
  • A pinch salt
  • 1 tbsp coconut oil
  • Any toppings you like – I’d suggest pistachios; rose petals or coconut flakes
Method
  1. Measure out all ingredients beforehand; pit and soak the medjool dates in boiling water for at least 10 minutes and soften the coconut oil at room temperature. 
  2. Preheat the oven to 180C/356F/Gas Mark 4 and line a baking tray with greaseproof paper.
  3. Temper (melt) 100g chocolate in a sturdy bowl over boiling water. 
  4. Drain the soaked dates and mash into a pulp by hand. Stir in the coconut oil and combine well until it becomes a paste. Fold in the tempered chocolate until the liquid has combined thoroughly.
  5. In your main mixing bowl, sift the flour, salt and baking soda, as well as the cocoa powder. 
  6. Pour the wet ingredients into the dry and stir until a fudgy batter is formed. Since this doesn’t use eggs, the batter will be more on the solid side and should hold it’s shape if you fold into a ball.
  7. Flatten the batter into your tin with wet hands. This ensures a smoother top and prevents the batter from sticking to your hands.
  8. Bake for up to 15 minutes max, or until you notice a slight rise and spring to the top of the brownie.
  9. While the brownies are cooling, temper a second batch of chocolate, this time adding a pinch of salt and coconut oil to create a silky ganache. Alternatively, you can warm up chocolate spread! 
  10. Only layer the ganache on top when the brownies are cool to the touch. Wait for the ganache to harden slightly before slicing into 12 even squares. These are best served warm with rich vanilla ice cream.