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  • Journal article
    Sivananthan A, Kogkas A, Ben G, Darzi A, Mylonas G, Patel Net al., 2021,

    A novel gaze-controlled flexible robotized endoscope; preliminary trial and report

  • Report
    Lawrance E, Thompson R, Fontana G, Jennings Net al., 2021,

    The impact of climate change on mental health and emotional wellbeing: current evidence and implications for policy and practice

  • Journal article
    Dewa L, Lawrence-Jones A, Kalorkoti C, Jaques J, Pickles K, Lavelle M, Pappa S, Aylin Pet al., 2021,

    Reflections, impact and recommendations of a co-produced qualitative study with young people who have experience of mental health difficulties

    , Health Expectations, Vol: 24, Pages: 134-146, ISSN: 1369-6513

    BackgroundThere is limited evidence of genuine equal partnership where power is shared with young people with mental health difficulties throughout all research stages, particularly in data collection and analysis.ObjectiveTo describe how our qualitative study, exploring young peoples’ perceptions on the feasibility of using technology to detect mental health deterioration, was co-produced using principles of co-production, whilst reflecting on impact, challenges and recommendations.MethodsYoung people with experience of mental health difficulties were appointed and then worked with researchers throughout all research stages. The study was evaluated against the five principles of co-production. Reflections from researchers and young people were collected throughout.ResultsSeven young people formed an initial Young People's Advisory Group (YPAG); three became co-researchers. Reflection was key throughout the process. Sharing power became easier and more evident as trust, confidence and mutual respect grew over time, particularly after a safe space was established. The safe space was crucial for open discussions, and our WhatsApp group enabled continual communication, support and shared decision-making. The resulting co-produced topic guide, coding framework, thematic map, papers and presentations demonstrated significant impact.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this is the first qualitative mental health study to be co-produced using the principles of co-production. Our rigorous assessment can be utilized as an informative document to help others to produce meaningful co-produced future research. Although co-production takes time, it makes significant impact to the research, researchers and co-researchers. Flexible funding for spontaneous suggestions from co-researchers and more time for interview training is recommended.

  • Journal article
    Golahmadi AK, Khan DZ, Mylonas GP, Marcus HJet al., 2021,

    Tool-tissue forces in surgery: A systematic review

    , Annals of Medicine and Surgery, Vol: 65, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2049-0801

    BackgroundExcessive tool-tissue interaction forces often result in tissue damage and intraoperative complications, while insufficient forces prevent the completion of the task. This review sought to explore the tool-tissue interaction forces exerted by instruments during surgery across different specialities, tissues, manoeuvres and experience levels.Materials & methodsA PRISMA-guided systematic review was carried out using Embase, Medline and Web of Science databases.ResultsOf 462 articles screened, 45 studies discussing surgical tool-tissue forces were included. The studies were categorized into 9 different specialities with the mean of average forces lowest for ophthalmology (0.04N) and highest for orthopaedic surgery (210N). Nervous tissue required the least amount of force to manipulate (mean of average: 0.4N), whilst connective tissue (including bone) required the most (mean of average: 45.8). For manoeuvres, drilling recorded the highest forces (mean of average: 14N), whilst sharp dissection recorded the lowest (mean of average: 0.03N). When comparing differences in the mean of average forces between groups, novices exerted 22.7% more force than experts, and presence of a feedback mechanism (e.g. audio) reduced exerted forces by 47.9%.ConclusionsThe measurement of tool-tissue forces is a novel but rapidly expanding field. The range of forces applied varies according to surgical speciality, tissue, manoeuvre, operator experience and feedback provided. Knowledge of the safe range of surgical forces will improve surgical safety whilst maintaining effectiveness. Measuring forces during surgery may provide an objective metric for training and assessment. Development of smart instruments, robotics and integrated feedback systems will facilitate this.

  • Journal article
    Danielli S, Patria R, Donnelly P, Ashrafian H, Darzi Aet al., 2021,

    Economic interventions to ameliorate the impact of COVID-19 on the economy and health: an international comparison

    , Journal of Public Health, Vol: 43, Pages: 42-46, ISSN: 1741-3842

    BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic continues to challenge governments and policymakers worldwide. They have rightfully prioritised reducing the spread of the virus through social distancing interventions. However, shuttered business and widespread restrictions on travel and mobility have led to an economic collapse with increasing uncertainty of how quickly recovery will be achieved.MethodsThe authors carried out a review of publicly available information on the economic intervention’s countries have put in place to ameliorate the impact of COVID-19.ResultsThe strategies and scale of economic interventions have been broad, ranging from 2.5% to a reported 50% of Gross Domestic Product.ConclusionsNumerous countries are beginning to ease lockdown restrictions and restart economies in different ways. There is therefore evolving, real-world data that should be used dynamically by governments and policymakers. The strategies on restarting the economy must be balanced against the uncertainty of a possible second wave of COVID-19. A nuanced approach to easing restrictions needs to take into account not only immediate risk to life but longer-term risks of widening inequalities and falling life expectancy.

  • Journal article
    Freise L, Neves AL, Flott K, Harrison P, Kelly J, Darzi A, Mayer EKet al., 2021,

    Assessment of patients' ability to review electronic health record information to identify potential errors: cross-sectional web-based survey

    , JMIR Formative Research, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2561-326X

    Background: Sharing personal health information positively impacts quality of care across several domains, and particularly, safety and patient-centeredness. Patients may identify and flag up inconsistencies in their electronic health records (EHRs), leading to improved information quality and patient safety. However, in order to identify potential errors, patients need to be able to understand the information contained in their EHRs.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess patients’ perceptions of their ability to understand the information contained in their EHRs and to analyze the main barriers to their understanding. Additionally, the main types of patient-reported errors were characterized.Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken between March 2017 and September 2017. A total of 682 registered users of the Care Information Exchange, a patient portal, with at least one access during the time of the study were invited to complete the survey containing both structured (multiple choice) and unstructured (free text) questions. The survey contained questions on patients’ perceived ability to understand their EHR information and therefore, to identify errors. Free-text questions allowed respondents to expand on the reasoning for their structured responses and provide more detail about their perceptions of EHRs and identifying errors within them. Qualitative data were systematically reviewed by 2 independent researchers using the framework analysis method in order to identify emerging themes.Results: A total of 210 responses were obtained. The majority of the responses (123/210, 58.6%) reported understanding of the information. The main barriers identified were information-related (medical terminology and knowledge and interpretation of test results) and technology-related (user-friendliness of the portal, information display). Inconsistencies relating to incomplete and incorrect information were reported in 12.4% (26/210) of the res

  • Journal article
    Olivia L, Roberts L, Jonathan R G, Pip B, Lenny N, Kelsey M F, Anna L-J, Saira G, Ara D, Neves ALet al., 2021,

    “Opening a Can of Worms” - exploring public hopes and fears on healthcare data sharing: qualitative study

    , Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1438-8871

    Background: Evidence suggests that health care data sharing may strengthen care coordination, improve quality and safety, and reduce costs. However, to achieve efficient and meaningful adoption of health care data-sharing initiatives, it is necessary to engage all stakeholders, from health care professionals to patients. Although previous work has assessed health care professionals’ perceptions of data sharing, perspectives of the general public and particularly of seldom heard groups have yet to be fully assessed.Objective: This study aims to explore the views of the public, particularly their hopes and concerns, around health care data sharing.Methods: An original, immersive public engagement interactive experience was developed—The Can of Worms installation—in which participants were prompted to reflect about data sharing through listening to individual stories around health care data sharing. A multidisciplinary team with expertise in research, public involvement, and human-centered design developed this concept. The installation took place in three separate events between November 2018 and November 2019. A combination of convenience and snowball sampling was used in this study. Participants were asked to fill self-administered feedback cards and to describe their hopes and fears about the meaningful use of data in health care. The transcripts were compiled verbatim and systematically reviewed by four independent reviewers using the thematic analysis method to identify emerging themes.Results: Our approach exemplifies the potential of using interdisciplinary expertise in research, public involvement, and human-centered design to tell stories, collect perspectives, and spark conversations around complex topics in participatory digital medicine. A total of 352 qualitative feedback cards were collected, each reflecting participants’ hopes and fears for health care data sharing. Thematic analyses identified six themes under hopes: enablement

  • Journal article
    Obrien N, Flott K, Durkin M, 2021,

    COVID-19: leadership on the frontline is what matters when we support healthcare workers

    , International Journal for Quality in Health Care, Vol: 33, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 1353-4505

    The implications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, henceforth described as COVID-19) on healthcare systems globally are proving to be immense, with unforeseen impacts that are still to fully emerge. Local and national healthcare systems, hospitals and healthcare workers have been overwhelmed by the needs of patients and limited by weaknesses in resources, staff capacity and distribution networks. These circumstances impact the ergonomic conditions within which healthcare staff work and subsequently their behavioural responses.In this commentary, we argue that urgent research is needed globally to bridge the evidence gap that exists on how best to support healthcare workers with the repercussions of working on the frontline of a pandemic. Leadership on the frontline is what matters. It is not only what policies, guidelines and checklists are in place to support nurses, doctors and healthcare workers, it is the actions and behaviours of their frontline and local leaders in implementing initiatives that really make the difference.Recognizing that the leadership style, organizational culture and model of successful implementation are inextricable is the first step to ensure sustainable interventions to support healthcare workers' well-being will follow.

  • Journal article
    Ward H, Atchison C, Whitaker M, Ainslie KEC, Elliott J, Okell L, Redd R, Ashby D, Donnelly C, Barclay W, Darzi A, Cooke G, Riley S, Elliott Pet al., 2021,

    SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence in England following the first peak of the pandemic.

    , Nature Communications, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2041-1723

    England has experienced a large outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, disproportionately affecting people from disadvantaged and ethnic minority communities. It is unclear how much of this excess is due to differences in exposure associated with structural inequalities. Here we report from the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-2 (REACT-2) national study of over 100,000 people. After adjusting for test characteristics and re-weighting to the population, overall antibody prevalence is 6.0% (95% CI: 5.8-6.1). An estimated 3.4 million people had developed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 by mid-July 2020. Prevalence is two- to three-fold higher among health and care workers compared with non-essential workers, and in people of Black or South Asian than white ethnicity, while age- and sex-specific infection fatality ratios are similar across ethnicities. Our results indicate that higher hospitalisation and mortality from COVID-19 in minority ethnic groups may reflect higher rates of infection rather than differential experience of disease or care.

  • Journal article
    OBrien N, Ghafur S, Durkin M, 2021,

    Cybersecurity in health is an urgent patient safety concern: We can learn from existing patient safety improvement strategies to address it

    , Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management, Vol: 26, Pages: 5-10, ISSN: 2516-0435

    <jats:sec><jats:title>Introduction</jats:title><jats:p> Cybersecurity is a patient safety concern. Recent cyberattacks on healthcare institutions around the world have shown the risks to patients: from delayed treatment as hospitals and clinics are shutdown, to the threat of harm from the theft of personal data, to patient death. The recent Covid-19 pandemic has further increased cyber-attacks on health organisations. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) digital health, including the use of health informatics systems and electronic health records, is an increasing part of the health agenda as national governments move to scale up healthcare on the path to achieving Universal Health Coverage. Frontline healthcare workers are often warned of the dangers of data mismanagement and are advised to take precautions to ensure data is safe. However, as many workers are already overstretched with conflicting administrative priorities, cybersecurity risks are going unnoticed. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Discussion</jats:title><jats:p> In this commentary we argue that future education and training interventions for frontline healthcare workers on cybersecurity in LMICs can benefit from lessons learned from other areas of patient safety. Validated interventions, including education and awareness programmes and other simple tools, exist which can offer guidance on how cybersecurity awareness and education may be scaled up in frontline healthcare facilities, without adding an unacceptable burden to staff. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title><jats:p> Efforts to develop frontline interventions on cybersecurity that can be easily implemented and sustained are essential to ensure patient safety is a top priority in a digitally reliant health system. </jats:p></jats:sec>

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