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  • Report
    Roland J, Lawrance E, Insel T, Christensen Het al., 2020,

    The digital mental health revolution: Transforming care through innovation and scale-up

    , Publisher: The World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH)

    The report reviews how to prepare and navigate innovations and their potential to address critical health needs.

  • Report
    Thompson D, Leis M, Davies N, Viner Ret al., 2020,

    Building healthy societies: A framework for integrating health and health promotion into education

    , Publisher: The World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH)

    The report explores how health activities can be implemented into education systems to deliver improved health outcomes.

  • Journal article
    Shaw A, Flott K, Fontana G, Durkin M, Darzi Aet al., 2020,

    No patient safety without health worker safety Comment

    , The Lancet, Vol: 396, Pages: 1541-1543, ISSN: 0140-6736
  • Journal article
    Greenhalgh T, Thompson P, Weiringa S, Neves AL, Husain L, Dunlop M, Rushforth A, Nunan D, de Lusignan S, Delaney Bet al., 2020,

    What items should be included in an early warning score for remote assessment of suspected COVID-19? qualitative and Delphi study

    , BMJ Open, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-26, ISSN: 2044-6055

    Background To develop items for an early warning score (RECAP: REmote COVID-19 Assessment in Primary Care) for patients with suspected COVID-19 who need escalation to next level of care.Methods The study was based in UK primary healthcare. The mixed-methods design included rapid review, Delphi panel, interviews, focus groups and software development. Participants were 112 primary care clinicians and 50 patients recovered from COVID-19, recruited through social media, patient groups and snowballing. Using rapid literature review, we identified signs and symptoms which are commoner in severe COVID-19. Building a preliminary set of items from these, we ran four rounds of an online Delphi panel with 72 clinicians, the last incorporating fictional vignettes, collating data on R software. We refined the items iteratively in response to quantitative and qualitative feedback. Items in the penultimate round were checked against narrative interviews with 50 COVID-19 patients. We required, for each item, at least 80% clinician agreement on relevance, wording and cut-off values, and that the item addressed issues and concerns raised by patients. In focus groups, 40 clinicians suggested further refinements and discussed workability of the instrument in relation to local resources and care pathways. This informed design of an electronic template for primary care systems.Results The prevalidation RECAP-V0 comprises a red flag alert box and 10 assessment items: pulse, shortness of breath or respiratory rate, trajectory of breathlessness, pulse oximeter reading (with brief exercise test if appropriate) or symptoms suggestive of hypoxia, temperature or fever symptoms, duration of symptoms, muscle aches, new confusion, shielded list and known risk factors for poor outcome. It is not yet known how sensitive or specific it is.Conclusions Items on RECAP-V0 align strongly with published evidence, clinical judgement and patient experience. The validation phase of this study is ongoing.Tria

  • Journal article
    Arezzo A, Francis N, Mintz Y, Adamina M, Antoniou SA, Bouvy N, Copaescu C, de Manzini N, Di Lorenzo N, Morales-Conde S, Mueller-Stich BP, Nickel F, Popa D, Tait D, Thomas C, Nimmo S, Paraskevis D, Pietrabissa Aet al., 2020,

    EAES recommendations for recovery plan in minimally invasive surgery amid COVID-19 pandemic

    , SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, Vol: 35, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 0930-2794

    BackgroundCOVID-19 pandemic presented an unexpected challenge for the surgical community in general and Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) specialists in particular. This document aims to summarize recent evidence and experts’ opinion and formulate recommendations to guide the surgical community on how to best organize the recovery plan for surgical activity across different sub-specialities after the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodsRecommendations were developed through a Delphi process for establishment of expert consensus. Domain topics were formulated and subsequently subdivided into questions pertinent to different surgical specialities following the COVID-19 crisis. Sixty-five experts from 24 countries, representing the entire EAES board, were invited. Fifty clinicians and six engineers accepted the invitation and drafted statements based on specific key questions. Anonymous voting on the statements was performed until consensus was achieved, defined by at least 70% agreement.ResultsA total of 92 consensus statements were formulated with regard to safe resumption of surgery across eight domains, addressing general surgery, upper GI, lower GI, bariatrics, endocrine, HPB, abdominal wall and technology/research. The statements addressed elective and emergency services across all subspecialties with specific attention to the role of MIS during the recovery plan. Eighty-four of the statements were approved during the first round of Delphi voting (91.3%) and another 8 during the following round after substantial modification, resulting in a 100% consensus.ConclusionThe recommendations formulated by the EAES board establish a framework for resumption of surgery following COVID-19 pandemic with particular focus on the role of MIS across surgical specialities. The statements have the potential for wide application in the clinical setting, education activities and research work across different healthcare systems.

  • Report
    O'Brien N, Martin G, Grass E, Durkin M, Ghafur Set al., 2020,

    Safeguarding our healthcare systems: A global framework for cybersecurity

    , Publisher: World Innovation Summit for Health
  • Journal article
    Avery J, Shulakova D, Runciman M, Mylonas GP, Darzi Aet al., 2020,

    Tactile sensor for minimally invasive surgery using Electrical Impedance Tomography

    , IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics, Vol: 2, Pages: 561-564, ISSN: 2576-3202

    Whilst offering numerous benefits to patients, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has a disadvantage in the loss of tactile feedback to the surgeon, traditionally offering valuable qualitative tissue assessment, such as tumour identification and localisation. Tactile sensors aim to overcome this loss of sensation by detecting tissue characteristics such as stiffness, composition and temperature. Tactile sensors have previously been incorporated into MIS robotic end effectors, which require lengthy scanning procedures due to localised sensitivity. Distributed tactile sensors, or “artificial skin” offer a map of tissue properties in a single instance but are often not suitable for MIS applications due to limited biocompatibility or large collapsed volumes. We propose a deployable, soft, tactile sensor with a deformable saline chamber and integrated Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) electrodes. During contact with tissue, the saline is displaced from the chamber and the lesion size and stiffness can be inferred from the resultant impedance changes. Through optimisation of the EIT measurement protocol and hardware the sensor was capable of localising the centre of mass of palpation targets within 1.5 mm in simulation and 2.3–4.6mm in phantom experiments. Reconstructed image metrics differentiated target objects from 8–30 mm.

  • Journal article
    Aufegger L, Khanh Ha B, Colin B, Ara Det al., 2020,

    Developing a paediatric virtual hospital information system with children, parents, and healthcare staff: A UX design study

    , BMC Pediatrics, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1471-2431

    BackgroundThe hospital patient pathway for having treatment procedures can be daunting for younger patients and their family members, especially when they are about to undergo a complex intervention. Opportunities to mentally prepare young patients for their hospital treatments, e.g. for surgical procedures, include tools such as therapeutic clowns, medical dolls, or books and board games. However, while promising in reducing pre-operative anxiety and negative behaviours, they may be resource intensive, costly, and not always readily available. In this study, we co-designed a digital hospital information system with children, parents and clinicians, in order to prepare children undergoing medical treatment.MethodThe study took place in the UK and consisted of two parts: In part 1, we purposively sampled 37 participants (n=22 parents, and n=15 clinicians) to understand perceptions and concerns of an hospital information platform specifically design for and addressed to children. In part 2, 14 children and 11 parents attended an audio and video recorded co-design workshop alongside a graphic designer and the research team to have their ideas explored and reflected on for the design of such information technology. Consequently, we used collected data to conduct thematic analysis and narrative synthesis.ResultsFindings from the survey were categorised into four themes: (1) the prospect of a hospital information system (parents’ inputs); (2) content-specific information needed for the information system (parents’ and clinicians’ inputs); (3) using the virtual information system to connect young patients and parents (parents’ inputs); and (4) how to use the virtual hospital information system from a clinician’s perspective (clinicians’ inputs). In contrast, the workshop highlighted points in times children were most distressed/relaxed, and derived the ideal hospital visit in both their and their parents’ perspectives.ConclusionsTh

  • Journal article
    Aufegger L, Bùi KH, Bicknell C, Darzi Aet al., 2020,

    Designing a paediatric hospital information tool with children, parents, and healthcare staff: a UX study

    , BMC Pediatrics, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1471-2431

    BACKGROUND: The hospital patient pathway for having treatment procedures can be daunting for younger patients and their family members, especially when they are about to undergo a complex intervention. Opportunities to mentally prepare young patients for their hospital treatments, e.g. for surgical procedures, include tools such as therapeutic clowns, medical dolls, or books and board games. However, while promising in reducing pre-operative anxiety and negative behaviours, they may be resource intensive, costly, and not always readily available. In this study, we co-designed a digital hospital information system with children, parents and clinicians, in order to prepare children undergoing medical treatment. METHOD: The study took place in the UK and consisted of two parts: In part 1, we purposively sampled 37 participants (n=22 parents, and n=15 clinicians) to understand perceptions and concerns of an hospital information platform specifically design for and addressed to children. In part 2, 14 children and 11 parents attended an audio and video recorded co-design workshop alongside a graphic designer and the research team to have their ideas explored and reflected on for the design of such information technology. Consequently, we used collected data to conduct thematic analysis and narrative synthesis. RESULTS: Findings from the survey were categorised into four themes: (1) the prospect of a hospital information system (parents' inputs); (2) content-specific information needed for the information system (parents' and clinicians' inputs); (3) using the virtual information system to connect young patients and parents (parents' inputs); and (4) how to use the virtual hospital information system from a clinician's perspective (clinicians' inputs). In contrast, the workshop highlighted points in times children were most distressed/relaxed, and derived the ideal hospital visit in both their and their parents' perspectives. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the use of v

  • Journal article
    Huf S, Kerrison RS, King D, Chadborn T, Richmond A, Cunningham D, Friedman E, Shukla H, Tseng F-M, Judah G, Darzi A, Vlaev Iet al., 2020,

    Behavioral economics informed message content in text message reminders to improve cervical screening participation: Two pragmatic randomized controlled trials

    , Preventive Medicine, Vol: 139, ISSN: 0091-7435

    The objective of the reported research was to assess the impact of text message (SMS) reminders and their content on cervical screening rates. Women invited for cervical screening in Northwest London from February-October 2015 were eligible. 3133 women aged 24-29 (Study 1) were randomized (1, 1) to 'no SMS' (control), or a primary care physician (PCP) endorsed SMS (SMS-PCP). 11,405 women aged 30-64 (Study 2), were randomized (1, 1:1:1:1:1:1) to either: no SMS, an SMS without manipulation (SMS), the SMS-PCP, an SMS with a total or proportionate social norm (SMS-SNT or SMS-SNP), or an SMS with a gain-framed or loss-framed message (SMS-GF and SMS-LF). The primary outcome was participation at 18 weeks. In Study 1 participation was significantly higher in the SMS-PCP arm (31.4%) compared to control (26.4%, aOR, 1.29, 95%CI: 1.09-1·51; p = 0.002). In Study 2 participation was highest in the SMS-PCP (38.4%) and SMS (38.1%) arms compared to control (34.4%), (aOR: 1.19, 95%CI: 1.03-1.38; p = 0.02 and aOR: 1.18, 95%CI: 1.02-1.37; p = 0.03, respectively). The results demonstrate that behavioral SMSs improve cervical screening participation. The message content plays an important role in the impact of SMS. The results from this trial have already been used to designing effective policy for cervical cancer screening. The NHS Cervical Screening Programme started running a London-wide screening SMS campaign which was based on the cervical screening trial described here. According to figures published by Public Health England, after six months attendance increased by 4.8%, which is the equivalent of 13,400 more women being screened at 18 weeks.

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