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  • Journal article
    Lett A, Lim A, Skinner C, Maurice J, Vergis N, Darzi A, Goldin R, Thursz M, Thompson Aet al., 2021,

    Rapid, non-invasive measurement of gastric emptying rate using transcutaneous fluorescence spectroscopy

    , Biomedical Optics Express, Vol: 12, Pages: 4249-4264, ISSN: 2156-7085

    Gastric emptying rate (GER) signifies the rate at which the stomach empties following ingestion of a meal and is relevant to a wide range of clinical conditions. GER also represents a rate limiting step in small intestinal absorption and so is widely assessed for research purposes. Despite the clinical and physiological importance of gastric emptying, methods used to measure GER possess a series of limitations (including being invasive, slow or unsuitable for certain patient populations). Here, we present a new technique based on transcutaneous (through-the-skin) fluorescence spectroscopy that is fast, non-invasive, and does not require the collection of samples or laboratory-based analysis. Thus, this approach has the potential to allow immediate reporting of clinical results. Using this new method, participants receive an oral dose of a fluorescent contrast agent and a wearable probe detects the uptake of the agent from the gut into the blood stream. Analysis of the resulting data then permits the calculation of GER. We compared our spectroscopic technique to the paracetamol absorption test (a clinically approved GER test) in a clinical study of 20 participants. Results demonstrated good agreement between the two approaches and, hence, the clear potential of transcutaneous fluorescence spectroscopy for clinical assessment of GER.

  • Journal article
    Ezzat A, Kogkas A, Holt J, Thakkar R, Darzi A, Mylonas Get al., 2021,

    An eye-tracking based robotic scrub nurse: proof of concept


    BackgroundWithin surgery, assistive robotic devices (ARD) have reported improved patient outcomes. ARD can offer the surgical team a “third hand” to perform wider tasks and more degrees of motion in comparison with conventional laparoscopy. We test an eye-tracking based robotic scrub nurse (RSN) in a simulated operating room based on a novel real-time framework for theatre-wide 3D gaze localization in a mobile fashion.MethodsSurgeons performed segmental resection of pig colon and handsewn end-to-end anastomosis while wearing eye-tracking glasses (ETG) assisted by distributed RGB-D motion sensors. To select instruments, surgeons (ST) fixed their gaze on a screen, initiating the RSN to pick up and transfer the item. Comparison was made between the task with the assistance of a human scrub nurse (HSNt) versus the task with the assistance of robotic and human scrub nurse (R&HSNt). Task load (NASA-TLX), technology acceptance (Van der Laan’s), metric data on performance and team communication were measured.ResultsOverall, 10 ST participated. NASA-TLX feedback for ST on HSNt vs R&HSNt usage revealed no significant difference in mental, physical or temporal demands and no change in task performance. ST reported significantly higher frustration score with R&HSNt. Van der Laan’s scores showed positive usefulness and satisfaction scores in using the RSN. No significant difference in operating time was observed.ConclusionsWe report initial findings of our eye-tracking based RSN. This enables mobile, unrestricted hands-free human–robot interaction intra-operatively. Importantly, this platform is deemed non-inferior to HSNt and accepted by ST and HSN test users.

  • Journal article
    Aufegger L, Soane E, Darzi A, Bicknell Cet al., 2021,

    Shared leadership in tertiary care: design of a simulation for patient safety decision-making in healthcare management teams

    , BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning, Vol: 7, Pages: 216-222, ISSN: 2056-6697

    Introduction Simulation-based training (SBT) on shared leadership (SL) and group decision-making (GDM) can contribute to the safe and efficient functioning of a healthcare system, yet it is rarely incorporated into healthcare management training. The aim of this study was design, develop and validate a robust and evidence-based SBT to explore and train SL and GDM.Method Using a two-stage iterative simulation design approach, 103 clinical and non-clinical managerial students and healthcare professionals took part in an SBT that contained real-world problems and opportunities to improve patient safety set within a fictional context. Self-report data were gathered, and a focus group was conducted to address the simulation’s degree of realism, content, relevance, as well as areas for improvement.Results Participants experienced the simulation scenario, the material and the role assignment as realistic and representative of real-world tasks and decision contexts, and as a good opportunity to identify and enact relevant tasks, behaviours and knowledge related to SL and GDM. Areas for improvement were highlighted with regard to involving an actor who challenges SL and GDM; more preparatory time to allow for an enhanced familiarisation of the content; and, video debriefs to reflect on relevant behaviours and team processes.Conclusions Our simulation was perceived as an effective method to develop SL and GDM within the context of patient safety and healthcare management. Future studies could extend this scenario method to other areas of healthcare service and delivery, and to different sectors that require diverse groups to make complex decisions.

  • Journal article
    Riley S, Ainslie KEC, Eales O, Walters CE, Wang H, Atchison C, Fronterre C, Diggle PJ, Ashby D, Donnelly CA, Cooke G, Barclay W, Ward H, Darzi A, Elliott Pet al., 2021,

    Resurgence of SARS-CoV-2: detection by community viral surveillance

    , Science, Vol: 372, Pages: 990-995, ISSN: 0036-8075

    Surveillance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has mainly relied on case reporting, which is biased by health service performance, test availability, and test-seeking behaviors. We report a community-wide national representative surveillance program in England based on self-administered swab results from ~594,000 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, regardless of symptoms, between May and the beginning of September 2020. The epidemic declined between May and July 2020 but then increased gradually from mid-August, accelerating into early September 2020 at the start of the second wave. When compared with cases detected through routine surveillance, we report here a longer period of decline and a younger age distribution. Representative community sampling for SARS-CoV-2 can substantially improve situational awareness and feed into the public health response even at low prevalence.

  • Journal article
    Chapman M, Domínguez J, Fairweather E, Delaney BC, Curcin Vet al., 2021,

    Using Computable Phenotypes in Point-of-Care Clinical Trial Recruitment.

    , Stud Health Technol Inform, Vol: 281, Pages: 560-564

    A key challenge in point-of-care clinical trial recruitment is to autonomously identify eligible patients on presentation. Similarly, the aim of computable phenotyping is to identify those individuals within a population that exhibit a certain condition. This synergy creates an opportunity to leverage phenotypes in identifying eligible patients for clinical trials. To investigate the feasibility of this approach, we use the Transform clinical trial platform and replace its archetype-based eligibility criteria mechanism with a computable phenotype execution microservice. Utilising a phenotype for acute otitis media with discharge (AOMd) created with the Phenoflow platform, we compare the performance of Transform with and without the use of phenotype-based eligibility criteria when recruiting AOMd patients. The parameters of the trial simulated are based on those of the REST clinical trial, conducted in UK primary care.

  • Journal article
    Sivananthan A, Kogkas A, Glover B, Darzi A, Mylonas G, Patel Net al., 2021,

    A novel gaze-controlled flexible robotized endoscope; preliminary trial and report


    BackgroundInterventional endoluminal therapy is rapidly advancing as a minimally invasive surgical technique. The expanding remit of endoscopic therapy necessitates precision control. Eye tracking is an emerging technology which allows intuitive control of devices. This was a feasibility study to establish if a novel eye gaze-controlled endoscopic system could be used to intuitively control an endoscope.MethodsAn eye gaze-control system consisting of eye tracking glasses, specialist cameras and a joystick was used to control a robotically driven endoscope allowing steering, advancement, withdrawal and retroflexion. Eight experienced and eight non-endoscopists used both the eye gaze system and a conventional endoscope to identify ten targets in two simulated environments: a sphere and an upper gastrointestinal (UGI) model.Completion of tasks was timed. Subjective feedback was collected from each participant on task load (NASA Task Load Index) and acceptance of technology (Van der Laan scale).ResultsWhen using gaze-control endoscopy, non-endoscopists were significantly quicker when using gaze-control rather than conventional endoscopy (sphere task 3:54 ± 1:17 vs. 9:05 ± 5:40 min, p = 0.012, and UGI model task 1:59 ± 0:24 vs 3:45 ± 0:53 min, p < .001).Non-endoscopists reported significantly higher NASA-TLX workload total scores using conventional endoscopy versus gaze-control (80.6 ± 11.3 vs 22.5 ± 13.8, p < .001). Endoscopists reported significantly higher total NASA-TLX workload scores using gaze control versus conventional endoscopy (54.2 ± 16 vs 26.9 ± 15.3, p = 0.012). All subjects reported that the gaze-control had positive ‘usefulness’ and ‘satisfaction’ score of 0.56 ± 0.83 and 1.43 &

  • Journal article
    Barbot A, Wales D, Yeatman E, Yang GZet al., 2021,

    Microfluidics at fibre tip for nanolitre delivery and sampling

    , Advanced Science, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2198-3844

    Delivery and sampling nanolitre volumes of liquid can benefit new invasive surgical procedures.However, the dead volume and difficulty in generating constant pressure flow limits the use of small tubes such as capillaries.This work demonstrates sub-millimetre microfluidic chips assembled directly on the tip of a bundle of two hydrophobic coated 100 μm capillaries to deliver nanolitre droplets in liquid environments.Droplets are created in a specially designed nanopipette and propelled by gas through the capillary to the microfluidic chip where a passive valve mechanism separates liquid from gas, allowing their delivery.By adjusting the driving pressure and microfluidic geometry we demonstrate both partial and full delivery of 10 nanolitre droplets with 0.4 nanolitre maximum error, as well as sampling from the environment.This system will enable drug delivery and sampling with minimally invasive probes, facilitating continuous liquid biopsy for disease monitoring and in-vivo drug screening.

  • Report
    Lawrance E, Thompson R, Fontana G, Jennings Net al., 2021,

    The impact of climate change on mental health and emotional wellbeing: current evidence and implications for policy and practice

  • Conference paper
    Ashraf H, Sodergren M, Mylonas G, Darzi A, Ashraf H, Sodergren M, Mylonas G, Darzi Aet al., 2021,

    837 The Identification of Gaze Behaviour and Physiological Markers Associated With Making An Error During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    , ASiT/MedAll Virtual Surgical Summit, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 0007-1323
  • Journal article
    Dewa L, Lawrence-Jones A, Kalorkoti C, Jaques J, Pickles K, Lavelle M, Pappa S, Aylin Pet al., 2021,

    Reflections, impact and recommendations of a co-produced qualitative study with young people who have experience of mental health difficulties

    , Health Expectations, Vol: 24, Pages: 134-146, ISSN: 1369-6513

    BackgroundThere is limited evidence of genuine equal partnership where power is shared with young people with mental health difficulties throughout all research stages, particularly in data collection and analysis.ObjectiveTo describe how our qualitative study, exploring young peoples’ perceptions on the feasibility of using technology to detect mental health deterioration, was co-produced using principles of co-production, whilst reflecting on impact, challenges and recommendations.MethodsYoung people with experience of mental health difficulties were appointed and then worked with researchers throughout all research stages. The study was evaluated against the five principles of co-production. Reflections from researchers and young people were collected throughout.ResultsSeven young people formed an initial Young People's Advisory Group (YPAG); three became co-researchers. Reflection was key throughout the process. Sharing power became easier and more evident as trust, confidence and mutual respect grew over time, particularly after a safe space was established. The safe space was crucial for open discussions, and our WhatsApp group enabled continual communication, support and shared decision-making. The resulting co-produced topic guide, coding framework, thematic map, papers and presentations demonstrated significant impact.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this is the first qualitative mental health study to be co-produced using the principles of co-production. Our rigorous assessment can be utilized as an informative document to help others to produce meaningful co-produced future research. Although co-production takes time, it makes significant impact to the research, researchers and co-researchers. Flexible funding for spontaneous suggestions from co-researchers and more time for interview training is recommended.

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

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