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  • Conference paper
    Al-Menhali A, Krevor S, 2016,

    The impact of crude oil induced wettability alteration on remaining saturations of CO<inf>2</inf> in carbonates reservoirs: A core flood method

    Oil is an essential commodity in modern economies but the magnitude of carbon emissions associated with its consumption is significantly increasing the challenges of climate change mitigations. Carbon storage is well recognized as an important technology for CO2 emissions reduction on industrial scales. Observations and modeling have shown that residual trapping of CO2 through capillary forces within the pore space of saline aquifers, characterized as water-wet, is one of the most significant mechanisms for storage security and is also a factor determining the ultimate extent of CO2 migration within the reservoir. In contrast, most of the major CO2 storage projects in operation and under construction are in depleting oil reservoirs utilizing CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Carbon utilization and storage has a significant energy and economic benefits and is considered as an important component in achieving the widespread commercial deployment of carbon storage technology. However, there are no observations characterizing the extent of capillary trapping of CO2 in mixed-wet carbonate systems, a characteristic of most conventional oil reservoirs in the world. In this work, residual trapping of supercritical CO2 is measured in water-wet and mixed-wet carbonate systems on the same rock sample before and after wetting alteration with crude oil. In particular, CO2 trapping was characterized before and after wetting alteration so that the impact of the wetting state of the rock is observed directly. A reservoir condition core-flooding laboratory was used to make the measurements. The setup included high precision pumps, temperature control, stir reactor, the ability to recirculate fluids for weeks at a time and an X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. The wetted parts of the flow-loop were made of anti-corrosive material that can handle co-circulation of CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions. The measurements were made while maintaining chemical equilibrium between t

  • Journal article
    Sule MN, Templeton MR, Bond T, 2016,

    Rejection of organic micro-pollutants from water by a tubular, hydrophilic pervaporative membrane designed for irrigation applications

    , Environmental Technology, Vol: 37, Pages: 1382-1389, ISSN: 1479-487X

    The links between chemical properties, including those relating to molecular size, solubility,hydrophobicity and vapour pressure, and rejection of model aromatic micro-pollutants by atubular, hydrophilic polymer pervaporation membrane designed for irrigation applicationswas investigated. Open air experiments were conducted at room temperature for individualsolutions of fluorene, naphthalene, phenol, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-diethylbenzene and 2-phenoxyethanol. Percentage rejection generally increased with increased molecular size forthe model micro-pollutants (47% - 86%). Molecular weight and logKow had the strongestpositive relationships with rejection, as demonstrated by respective correlation coefficients ofr = 0.898 and 0.824. Rejection was also strongly negatively correlated with aqueoussolubility and H-bond δ. However, properties which relate to vapour phase concentrations ofthe micro-pollutants were not well correlated with rejection. Thus, physicochemicalseparation processes, rather than vapour pressure, drives removal of aromatic contaminantsby the investigated pervaporation tube. This expanded knowledge could be utilised inconsidering practical applications of pervaporative irrigation systems for treating organiccontaminatedwaters such as oilfield produced waters.

  • Journal article
    Vanniere B, Czaja A, Dacre H, Woollings T, Parfitt Ret al., 2016,

    A Potential Vorticity Signature for the Cold Sector of Winter Extratropical Cyclones

    , Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol: 142, Pages: 432-442, ISSN: 1477-870X

    The cold sector of mid-latitude storms is characterised by distinctive features such as strong surface heat fluxes, shallow convection, convective precipitation and synoptic subsidence. In order to evaluate the contribution of processes occurring in the cold sector to the mean climate, an appropriate indicator is needed. This study describes the systematic presence of negative PV behind the cold front of extratropical storms in winter. The origin of this negative PV is analysed using ERA-Interim data, potential vorticity tendencies averaged over the depth of the boundary layer are evaluated. It is found that negative PV is generated by diabatic processes in the cold sector and by Ekman pumping at the low centre, whereas positive PV is generated by Ekman advection of potential temperature in the warm sector. We suggest here that the negative PV at low-levels can be used to identify the cold sector. A PV-based indicator is applied to estimate the respective contributions of the cold sector and the remainder of the storm to upward motion, and large scale and convective precipitation. We compare the PV-based indicator with other distinctive features that could be used as markers of the cold sector, and find that potential vorticity is the best criterion when taken alone, and the best when combined with any other.

  • Journal article
    Hoque MA, Butler AP, 2016,

    Medical Hydrogeology of Asian Deltas: Status of Groundwater Toxicants and Nutrients, and Implications for Human Health

    , International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1660-4601

    Drinking water, a fluid primarily for human hydration, is also a source of mineral nutrients. Groundwater, a drinking water source for more than 70% of inhabitants living in Asian deltas, has received much attention because of its naturally occurring arsenic, but the linkage of arsenic toxicity with other water constituents has not been studied. In addition, although nutrients are generally provided by food, in under developed rural settings, where people subsist on low nutrient diets, drinking-water-nutrients may supply quantities critical to human health thereby preventing diseases. Here, we show, using augmented datasets from three Asian deltas (Bengal, Mekong, and Red River), that the chemical content of groundwater is so substantial that in some areas individuals obtain up to 50% or more of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of some nutrients (e.g. calcium, magnesium, iron) from just 2 litres of drinking water. We also show some indications of a spatial association of groundwater nutrients and health outcome using demographic health data from Bangladesh. We therefore suggest that an understanding of the association of non-communicable disease and poor nutrition cannot be developed, particularly in areas with high levels of dissolved solids in water sources, without considering the contribution of drinking water to nutrient and mineral supply.

  • Journal article
    Gerike R, de Nazelle A, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Panis LI, Anaya E, Avila-Palencia I, Boschetti F, Brand C, Cole-Hunter T, Dons E, Eriksson U, Gaupp-Berghausen M, Kahlmeier S, Laeremans M, Mueller N, Orjuela JP, Racioppi F, Raser E, Rojas-Rueda D, Schweizer C, Standaert A, Uhlmann T, Wegener S, Goetschi Tet al., 2016,

    Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project

    , BMJ Open, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2044-6055
  • Journal article
    Aitken ARA, Betts PG, Young DA, Blankenship DD, Roberts JL, Siegert MJet al., 2016,

    The Australo-Antarctic Columbia to Gondwana transition

    , Gondwana Research, Vol: 29, Pages: 136-152, ISSN: 1342-937X

    From the Mesoproterozoic to Cambrian, Australo-Antarctica was characterised by tectonic reconfiguration as part of the supercontinents Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. New tectonic knowledge of the Wilkes Land region of Antarctica allows Australo-Antarctic tectonic linkages to be resolved through reconstruction into ca. 160 Ma Gondwana. We also resolve 330 ± 30 km of sinistral strike-slip offset on the > 3000 km long Mundrabilla-Frost Shear Zone and 260 ± 20 km of dextral offset on the > 1000 km long Aurora Fault to reconstruct the ca. 1150 Ma geometry of Australo-Antarctica. Using this revised geometry, we derive the first model of the Columbia to Gondwana reconfiguration process that is geometrically constrained to ~ 100 km scale. In this model, early Mesoproterozoic tectonics is driven by two opposing subduction systems. A dominantly west-dipping subduction zone existed at the eastern margin of Australo-Antarctica until ca. 1.55–1.50 Ga. A predominantly east-dipping subduction zone operated at the western margin of the Mawson Craton from ca. 1.70 Ga to ca. 1.42 Ga. The latter caused gradual westwards motion and clockwise rotation of the Mawson Craton relative to the West and North Australian Craton and the accretion of a series of continental ribbons now preserved in the Musgrave Province and its southern extensions. A mid-Mesoproterozoic switch to predominantly west-dipping subduction beneath the West Australian Craton brought about the final closure of the Mawson Craton with the North and West Australian Craton along the Rodona-Totten Shear Zone. Convergence was achieved prior to 1.31 Ga, but final collision may not have occurred until ca. 1.29 Ga. Post-1.29 Ga intraplate activity involved prolonged high-temperature orogenesis from 1.22 to 1.12 Ga, and significant movement on the Mundrabilla-Frost Shear Zone between 1.13 and 1.09 Ga, perhaps in response to the assembly of Rodinia at ca. 1.1 Ga. The Australo-Antarctic Craton was amalgama

  • Journal article
    Alhajaj A, Mac Dowell N, Shah N, 2016,

    A techno-economic analysis of post-combustion CO2 capture and compression applied to a combined cycle gas turbine: Part I. A parametric study of the key technical performance indicators

    , International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 44, Pages: 26-41, ISSN: 1750-5836

    In order to mitigate significant capital expenditure and parasitic energy demands associated with post combustion capture plant, many studies focused on improving its performance and efficiency through improvement in the design, integration of utilities and selection of key operating parameters (KOPs) using various key performance indicators (KPIs). In this study, an equilibrium monoethanolamine-based CO2 capture plant and compression train model was developed, validated and then used to assess the effects of KOPs on the performance of the CO2 capture and compression process applied to a 400 MWe combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant in hot countries using selected non-monetized key economic and environmental performance indicators. These were selected so as to allow performance comparisons without resorting to economic assumptions (e.g., discount rates, costs of energy), which make such comparisons difficult. The results illustrate higher compression power and dramatic increase of cooling water requirements in coolers and washing water systems in hot countries. This work elucidates the complex compromise between minimizing capital and operating expenditure indicators, and environmental impacts. It highlights the importance of considering the whole process, as opposed to simply focusing on the energy penalty associated with solvent regeneration.

  • Book
    Voulvoulis N, Barcelo D, Verlicchi P, 2016,

    Pharmaceutical Residues in Sewage Treatment Works and their Fate in the Receiving Environment

    , Publisher: ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, ISBN: 978-1-78262-189-8
  • Journal article
    Halonen JI, Blangiardo M, Toledano MB, Fecht D, Gulliver J, Anderson HR, Beevers SD, Dajnak D, Kelly F, Tonne Cet al., 2016,

    Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London

    , Environmental pollution, Vol: 208, Pages: 48-57, ISSN: 1873-6424
  • Journal article
    De Kauwe MG, Lin Y-S, Wright IJ, Medlyn BE, Crous KY, Ellsworth DS, Maire V, Prentice IC, Atkin OK, Rogers A, Niinemets U, Serbin SP, Meir P, Uddling J, Togashi HF, Tarvainen L, Weerasinghe LK, Evans BJ, Ishida FY, Domingues TFet al., 2015,

    A test of the 'one-point method' for estimating maximum carboxylation capacity from field-measured, light-saturated photosynthesis

    , New Phytologist, Vol: 210, Pages: 1130-1144, ISSN: 1469-8137
  • Journal article
    Diaz S, Kattge J, Cornelissen JHC, Wright IJ, Lavorel S, Dray S, Reu B, Kleyer M, Wirth C, Prentice IC, Garnier E, Boenisch G, Westoby M, Poorter H, Reich PB, Moles AT, Dickie J, Gillison AN, Zanne AE, Chave J, Wright SJ, Sheremet'ev SN, Jactel H, Baraloto C, Cerabolini B, Pierce S, Shipley B, Kirkup D, Casanoves F, Joswig JS, Guenther A, Falczuk V, Rueger N, Mahecha MD, Gorne LDet al., 2015,

    The global spectrum of plant form and function

    , Nature, Vol: 529, Pages: 167-U73, ISSN: 0028-0836

    Earth is home to a remarkable diversity of plant forms and life histories, yet comparatively few essential trait combinations have proved evolutionarily viable in today’s terrestrial biosphere. By analysing worldwide variation in six major traits critical to growth, survival and reproduction within the largest sample of vascular plant species ever compiled, we found that occupancy of six-dimensional trait space is strongly concentrated, indicating coordination and trade-offs. Three-quarters of trait variation is captured in a two-dimensional global spectrum of plant form and function. One major dimension within this plane reflects the size of whole plants and their parts; the other represents the leaf economics spectrum, which balances leaf construction costs against growth potential. The global plant trait spectrum provides a backdrop for elucidating constraints on evolution, for functionally qualifying species and ecosystems, and for improving models that predict future vegetation based on continuous variation in plant form and function.

  • Journal article
    Oostrom M, White MD, Porse SL, Krevor SCM, Mathias SAet al., 2015,

    Comparison of relative permeability-saturation-capillary pressure models for simulation of reservoir CO2 injection

    , International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 45, Pages: 70-85, ISSN: 1750-5836

    Constitutive relations between relative permeability (kr), fluid saturation (S), and capillary pressure (Pc) determine to a large extent the distribution of brine and supercritical CO2 (scCO2) during subsurface injection operations. Published numerical multiphase simulations for brine-scCO2 systems so far have primarily used four kr-S-Pc models. For the S-Pc relations, either the Brooks-Corey (BC) or Van Genuchten (VG) equations are used. The kr-S relations are based on Mualem, Burdine, or Corey equations without the consideration of experimental data. Recently, two additional models have been proposed where the kr-S relations are obtained by fitting to experimental data using either an endpoint power law or a modified Corey approach. The six models were tested using data from four well-characterized sandstones (Berea, Paaratte, Tuscaloosa, Mt. Simon) for two radial injection test cases. The results show a large variation in plume extent and saturation distribution for each of the sandstones, depending on the used model. The VG-Mualem model predicts plumes that are considerably larger than for the other models due to the overestimation of the gas relative permeability. The predicted plume sizes are the smallest for the VG-Corey model due to the underestimation of the aqueous phase relative permeability. Of the four models that do not use fits to experimental relative permeability data, the hybrid model with Mualem aqueous phase and Corey gas phase relative permeabilities provide the best fits to the experimental data and produce results close to the model with fits to the capillary pressure and relative permeability data. The model with the endpoint power law resulted in very low, uniform gas saturations outside the dry-out zone for the Tuscaloosa sandstone, as the result of a rapidly declining aqueous phase relative permeability. This observed behavior illustrates the need to obtain reliable relative permeability relations for a potential reservoir, beyond permeabi

  • Journal article
    Jamieson SSR, Ross N, Greenbaum JS, Young DA, Aitken ARA, Roberts JL, Blankenship DD, Bo S, Siegert MJet al., 2015,

    An extensive subglacial lake and canyon system in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica

    , Geology, Vol: 44, Pages: 87-90, ISSN: 1943-2682

    The subglacial landscape of Princess Elizabeth Land (PEL) in East Antarctica is poorly known due to a paucity of ice thickness measurements. This is problematic given its importance for understanding ice sheet dynamics and landscape and climate evolution. To address this issue, we describe the topography beneath the ice sheet by assuming that ice surface expressions in satellite imagery relate to large-scale subglacial features. We find evidence that a large, previously undiscovered subglacial drainage network is hidden beneath the ice sheet in PEL. We interpret a discrete feature that is 140 × 20 km in plan form, and multiple narrow sinuous features that extend over a distance of ∼1100 km. We hypothesize that these are tectonically controlled and relate to a large subglacial basin containing a deep-water lake in the interior of PEL linked to a series of long, deep canyons. The presence of 1-km-deep canyons is confirmed at a few localities by radio-echo sounding data, and drainage analysis suggests that these canyons will direct subglacial meltwater to the coast between the Vestfold Hills and the West Ice Shelf.

  • Journal article
    De Kauwe MG, Zhou S-X, Medlyn BE, Pitman AJ, Wang Y-P, Duursma RA, Prentice ICet al., 2015,

    Do land surface models need to include differential plant species responses to drought? Examining model predictions across a mesic-xeric gradient in Europe

    , Biogeosciences, Vol: 12, Pages: 7503-7518, ISSN: 1726-4189

    Future climate change has the potential to increase drought in many regions of the globe, making it essential that land surface models (LSMs) used in coupled climate models realistically capture the drought responses of vegetation. Recent data syntheses show that drought sensitivity varies considerably among plants from different climate zones, but state-of-the-art LSMs currently assume the same drought sensitivity for all vegetation. We tested whether variable drought sensitivities are needed to explain the observed large-scale patterns of drought impact on the carbon, water and energy fluxes. We implemented data-driven drought sensitivities in the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) LSM and evaluated alternative sensitivities across a latitudinal gradient in Europe during the 2003 heatwave. The model predicted an overly abrupt onset of drought unless average soil water potential was calculated with dynamic weighting across soil layers. We found that high drought sensitivity at the most mesic sites, and low drought sensitivity at the most xeric sites, was necessary to accurately model responses during drought. Our results indicate that LSMs will over-estimate drought impacts in drier climates unless different sensitivity of vegetation to drought is taken into account.

  • Journal article
    Parkes MA, Chen T, Wu B, Yufit V, Offer GJet al., 2015,

    “can” you really make a battery out of that?

    , Journal of Chemical Education, Vol: 93, Pages: 681-686, ISSN: 1938-1328

    This classroom activity introduces students to battery electrochemistry through the construction of a simple battery made from household products. Students will use a set of simple design rules to improve the performance of the battery, and power a light emitting diode. The electrochemical performance of the batteries is characterized using potentiostatic cyclic voltammetry and chronoampometry, and suggestions for implementing this activity into a high school teaching environment are presented. Designed for United Kingdom secondary schools and exam boards, the supplementary teaching package contains problem sheets and activities appropriate for students age 14 and up.

  • Conference paper
    Jacobs CT, Avdis A, Mouradian SL, Piggott MDet al., 2015,

    Integrating Research Data Management into Geographical Information Systems

    , http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1529/, 5th International Workshop on Semantic Digital Archives (SDA 2015), Pages: 7-17

    Ocean modelling requires the production of high-fidelity computational meshes upon which to solve the equations of motion. The production of such meshes by hand is often infeasible, considering the complexity of the bathymetry and coastlines. The use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is therefore a key component to discretising the region of interest and producing a mesh appropriate to resolve the dynamics. However, all data associated with the production of a mesh must be provided in order to contribute to the overall recomputability of the subsequent simulation. This work presents the integration of research data management in QMesh, a tool for generating meshes using GIS. The tool uses the PyRDM library to provide a quick and easy way for scientists to publish meshes, and all data required to regenerate them, to persistent online repositories. These repositories are assigned unique identifiers to enable proper citation of the meshes in journal articles.

  • Journal article
    Barraclough TG, Lawrence D, Bell T, 2015,

    The effect of immigration on the adaptation of microbial communities to warming

    , American Naturalist, Vol: 187, ISSN: 1537-5323

    Theory predicts that immigration can either enhance or impair the rate at which species and whole communities adapt to environmental change, depending on the traits of genotypes and species in the source pool relative to local conditions. These responses in turn will determine how well whole communities function in changing environments. We tested the effects of immigration and experimental warming on microbial communities during an 81 day field experiment. The effects of immigration depended on the warming treatment. In warmed communities immigration was detrimental to community growth whereas in ambient communities it was beneficial. This result is explained if colonists came from a local species pool pre-adapted to ambient conditions. Loss of metabolic diversity, however, was buffered by immigration in both environments. Communities showed increasing local adaptation to temperature conditions during the experiment and this was independent of whether or not they received immigration. Genotypes that comprised the communities were not locally adapted, however, indicating that community local adaptation can be independent of adaptation of component genotypes. Our results are consistent with a greater role for species interactions rather than adaptation of constituent species in determining local adaptation of whole communities, and confirm that immigration can either enhance or impair community responses to environmental change depending on the environmental context.

  • Journal article
    Hodgson DA, Bentley MJ, Smith JA, Klepacki J, Makinson K, Smith AM, Saw K, Scherer R, Powell R, Tulaczyk S, Rose M, Pearce D, Mowlem M, Keen P, Siegert MJet al., 2015,

    Technologies for retrieving sediment cores in Antarctic subglacial settings

    , Journal: Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 374, ISSN: 1471-2962

    Accumulations of sediment beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet contain a range of physical and chemical proxies with the potential to document changes in ice sheet history and to identify and characterize life in subglacial settings. Retrieving subglacial sediments and sediment cores presents several unique challenges to existing technologies. This paper briefly reviews the history of sediment sampling in subglacial environments. It then outlines some of the technological challenges and constraints in developing the corers being used in sub-ice shelf settings (e.g. George VI Ice Shelf and Larsen Ice Shelf), under ice streams (e.g. Rutford Ice Stream), at or close to the grounding line (e.g. Whillans Ice Stream) and in subglacial lakes deep under the ice sheet (e.g. Lake Ellsworth). The key features of the corers designed to operate in each of these subglacial settings are described and illustrated together with comments on their deployment procedures.

  • Journal article
    Siegert MJ, Priscu JC, Alekhina IA, Wadham JL, Lyons WBet al., 2015,

    Antarctic subglacial lake exploration: first results and future plans

    , Journal: Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 374, ISSN: 1471-2962

    After more than a decade of planning, three attempts were made in 2012–2013 to access, measure in situ properties and directly sample subglacial Antarctic lake environments. First, Russian scientists drilled into the top of Lake Vostok, allowing lake water to infiltrate, and freeze within, the lower part of the ice-core borehole, from which further coring would recover a frozen sample of surface lake water. Second, UK engineers tried unsuccessfully to deploy a clean-access hot-water drill, to sample the water column and sediments of subglacial Lake Ellsworth. Third, a US mission successfully drilled cleanly into subglacial Lake Whillans, a shallow hydraulically active lake at the coastal margin of West Antarctica, obtaining samples that would later be used to prove the existence of microbial life and active biogeochemical cycling beneath the ice sheet. This article summarizes the results of these programmes in terms of the scientific results obtained, the operational knowledge gained and the engineering challenges revealed, to collate what is known about Antarctic subglacial environments and how to explore them in future. While results from Lake Whillans testify to subglacial lakes as being viable biological habitats, the engineering challenges to explore deeper more isolated lakes where unique microorganisms and climate records may be found, as exemplified in the Lake Ellsworth and Vostok missions, are considerable. Through international cooperation, and by using equipment and knowledge of the existing subglacial lake exploration programmes, it is possible that such environments could be explored thoroughly, and at numerous sites, in the near future.

  • Journal article
    Ross N, Le Brocq AM, Siegert MJ, 2015,

    Recent advances in understanding Antarctic subglacial lakes and hydrology

    , Journal: Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 374, ISSN: 1471-2962

    It is now well documented that over 400 subglacial lakes exist across the bed of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. They comprise a variety of sizes and volumes (from the approx. 250 km long Lake Vostok to bodies of water less than 1 km in length), relate to a number of discrete topographic settings (from those contained within valleys to lakes that reside in broad flat terrain) and exhibit a range of dynamic behaviours (from ‘active’ lakes that periodically outburst some or all of their water to those isolated hydrologically for millions of years). Here we critique recent advances in our understanding of subglacial lakes, in particular since the last inventory in 2012. We show that within 3 years our knowledge of the hydrological processes at the ice-sheet base has advanced considerably. We describe evidence for further ‘active’ subglacial lakes, based on satellite observation of ice-surface changes, and discuss why detection of many ‘active’ lakes is not resolved in traditional radio-echo sounding methods. We go on to review evidence for large-scale subglacial water flow in Antarctica, including the discovery of ancient channels developed by former hydrological processes. We end by predicting areas where future discoveries may be possible, including the detection, measurement and significance of groundwater (i.e. water held beneath the ice-bed interface).

  • Journal article
    Pearce DA, Magiopoulos I, Mowlem M, Tranter M, Holt G, Woodward J, Siegert MJet al., 2015,

    Microbiology: lessons from a first attempt at Lake Ellsworth

    , Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 374, ISSN: 1364-503X

    During the attempt to directly access, measure and sample Subglacial Lake Ellsworth in 2012–2013, we conducted microbiological analyses of the drilling equipment, scientific instrumentation, field camp and natural surroundings. From these studies, a number of lessons can be learned about the cleanliness of deep Antarctic subglacial lake access leading to, in particular, knowledge of the limitations of some of the most basic relevant microbiological principles. Here, we focus on five of the core challenges faced and describe how cleanliness and sterilization were implemented in the field. In the light of our field experiences, we consider how effective these actions were, and what can be learnt for future subglacial exploration missions. The five areas covered are: (i) field camp environment and activities, (ii) the engineering processes surrounding the hot water drilling, (iii) sample handling, including recovery, stability and preservation, (iv) clean access methodologies and removal of sample material, and (v) the biodiversity and distribution of bacteria around the Antarctic. Comparisons are made between the microbiology of the Lake Ellsworth field site and other Antarctic systems, including the lakes on Signy Island, and on the Antarctic Peninsula at Lake Hodgson. Ongoing research to better define and characterize the behaviour of natural and introduced microbial populations in response to deep-ice drilling is also discussed. We recommend that future access programmes: (i) assess each specific local environment in enhanced detail due to the potential for local contamination, (ii) consider the sterility of the access in more detail, specifically focusing on single cell colonization and the introduction of new species through contamination of pre-existing microbial communities, (iii) consider experimental bias in methodological approaches, (iv) undertake in situ biodiversity detection to mitigate risk of non-sample return and post-sample contamination, and (

  • Journal article
    Reynolds C, Krevor S, 2015,

    Characterising flow behaviour for gas injection: relative permeability of CO sub 2 /sub -brine and N sub 2 /sub-water in heterogeneous rocks

    , Water Resources Research, Vol: 51, Pages: 9464-9489, ISSN: 0043-1397

    We provide a comprehensive experimental study of steady state, drainage relative permeability curves with CO2-brine and N2-deionized water, on a single Bentheimer sandstone core with a simple two-layer heterogeneity. We demonstrate that, if measured in the viscous limit, relative permeability is invariant with changing reservoir conditions, and is consistent with the continuum-scale multiphase flow theory for water wet systems. Furthermore, we show that under capillary limited conditions, the CO2-brine system is very sensitive to heterogeneity in capillary pressure, and by performing core floods under capillary limited conditions, we produce effective relative permeability curves that are flow rate and fluid parameter dependent. We suggest that the major uncertainty in past observations of CO2-brine relative permeability curves is due to the interaction of CO2 flow with pore space heterogeneity under capillary limited conditions and is not due to the effects of changing reservoir conditions. We show that the appropriate conditions for measuring intrinsic or effective relative permeability curves can be selected simply by scaling the driving force for flow by a quantification of capillary heterogeneity. Measuring one or two effective curves on a core with capillary heterogeneity that is representative of the reservoir will be sufficient for reservoir simulation.

  • Journal article
    Bahadori L, Chakrabarti MH, Manan NSA, Hashim MA, Mjalli FS, AlNashef IM, Brandon Net al., 2015,

    The effect of temperature on kinetics and diffusion coefficients of metallocene derivatives in polyol-based deep eutectic solvents

    , PLOS One, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203

    The temperature dependence of the density, dynamic viscosity and ionic conductivity of several deep eutectic solvents (DESs) containing ammonium-based salts and hydrogen bond donvnors (polyol type) are investigated. The temperature-dependent electrolyte viscosity as a function of molar conductivity is correlated by means of Walden’s rule. The oxidation of ferrocene (Fc/Fc+) and reduction of cobaltocenium (Cc+/Cc) at different temperatures are studied by cyclic voltammetry and potential-step chronoamperometry in DESs. For most DESs, chronoamperometric transients are demonstrated to fit an Arrhenius-type relation to give activation energies for the diffusion of redox couples at different temperatures. The temperature dependence of the measured conductivities of DES1 and DES2 are better correlated with the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The kinetics of the Fc/Fc+ and Cc+/Cc electrochemical systems have been investigated over a temperature range from 298 to 338 K. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant is then calculated at different temperatures by means of a logarithmic analysis. The glycerol-based DES (DES5) appears suitable for further testing in electrochemical energy storage devices.

  • Journal article
    Wright R, Abraham E, Parpas P, Stoianov Iet al., 2015,

    Control of water distribution networks with dynamic DMA topology using strictly feasible sequential convex programming

    , Water Resources Research, Vol: 51, Pages: 9925-9941, ISSN: 0043-1397

    The operation of water distribution networks (WDN) with a dynamic topology is a recently pioneered approach for the advanced management of district metered areas (DMA) that integrates novel developments in hydraulic modelling, monitoring, optimization and control. A common practice for leakage management is the sectorization of WDNs into small zones, called DMAs, by permanently closing isolation valves. This facilitates water companies to identify bursts and estimate leakage levels by measuring the inlet flow for each DMA. However, by permanently closing valves, a number of problems have been created including reduced resilience to failure and suboptimal pressure management. By introducing a dynamic topology to these zones, these disadvantages can be eliminated whilst still retaining the DMA structure for leakage monitoring. In this paper, a novel optimization method based on sequential convex programming (SCP) is outlined for the control of a dynamic topology with the objective of reducing average zone pressure (AZP). A key attribute for control optimization is reliable convergence. To achieve this, the SCP method we propose guarantees that each optimization step is strictly feasible, resulting in improved convergence properties. By using a null space algorithm for hydraulic analyses, the computations required are also significantly reduced. The optimized control is actuated on a real WDN operated with a dynamic topology. This unique experimental programme incorporates a number of technologies set up with the objective of investigating pioneering developments in WDN management. Preliminary results indicate AZP reductions for a dynamic topology of up to 6.5% over optimally controlled fixed topology DMAs.

  • Journal article
    Tinetti G, Drossart P, Eccleston P, Hartogh P, Isaak K, Linder M, Lovis C, Micela G, Ollivier M, Puig L, Ribas I, Snellen I, Swinyard B, Allard F, Barstow J, Cho J, Coustenis A, Cockell C, Correia A, Decin L, de Kok R, Deroo P, Encrenaz T, Forget F, Glasse A, Griffith C, Guillot T, Koskinen T, Lammer H, Leconte J, Maxted P, Mueller-Wodarg I, Nelson R, North C, Palle E, Pagano I, Piccioni G, Pinfield D, Selsis F, Sozzetti A, Stixrude L, Tennyson J, Turrini D, Zapatero-Osorio M, Beaulieu J-P, Grodent D, Guedel M, Luz D, Norgaard-Nielsen HU, Ray T, Rickman H, Selig A, Swain M, Banaszkiewicz M, Barlow M, Bowles N, Branduardi-Raymont G, du Foresto VC, Gerard J-C, Gizon L, Hornstrup A, Jarchow C, Kerschbaum F, Kovacs G, Lagage P-O, Lim T, Lopez-Morales M, Malaguti G, Pace E, Pascale E, Vandenbussche B, Wright G, Ramos Zapata G, Adriani A, Azzollini R, Balado A, Bryson I, Burston R, Colome J, Crook M, Di Giorgio A, Griffin M, Hoogeveen R, Ottensamer R, Irshad R, Middleton K, Morgante G, Pinsard F, Rataj M, Reess J-M, Savini G, Schrader J-R, Stamper R, Winter B, Abe L, Abreu M, Achilleos N, Ade P, Adybekian V, Affer L, Agnor C, Agundez M, Alard C, Alcala J, Allende Prieto C, Alonso Floriano FJ, Altieri F, Alvarez Iglesias CA, Amado P, Andersen A, Aylward A, Baffa C, Bakos G, Ballerini P, Banaszkiewicz M, Barber RJ, Barrado D, Barton EJ, Batista V, Bellucci G, Belmonte Aviles JA, Berry D, Bezard B, Biondi D, Blecka M, Boisse I, Bonfond B, Borde P, Boerner P, Bouy H, Brown L, Buchhave L, Budaj J, Bulgarelli A, Burleigh M, Cabral A, Capria MT, Cassan A, Cavarroc C, Cecchi-Pestellini C, Cerulli R, Chadney J, Chamberlain S, Charnoz S, Jessen NC, Ciaravella A, Claret A, Claudi R, Coates A, Cole R, Collura A, Cordier D, Covino E, Danielski C, Damasso M, Deeg HJ, Delgado-Mena E, Del Vecchio C, Demangeon O, De Sio A, De Wit J, Dobrijevic M, Doel P, Dominic C, Dorfi E, Eales S, Eiroa C, Espinoza Contreras M, Esposito M, Eymet V, Fabrizio N, Fernandez M, Femena Castella B, Figueira Pet al., 2015,

    The EChO science case

    , Experimental Astronomy, Vol: 40, Pages: 329-391, ISSN: 1572-9508

    The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedlydiverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systemswithin the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of theEarth and Neptune—all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown thatour Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in ourMilky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What areexoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and whatcauses the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO(Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up thechallenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure andplanet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of theatmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemicaland dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientificprogram, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipsespectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample withinits 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signalfrom the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides,allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10−4 relative tothe star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payloadand satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelengthcoverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structureof the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellarphotosphere. This requires wavelength coverage of at l

  • Journal article
    Donaire-Gonzalez D, de Nazelle A, Cole-Hunter T, Curto A, Rodriguez DA, Mendez MA, Garcia-Aymerich J, Basagana X, Ambros A, Jerrett M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJet al., 2015,

    The Added Benefit of Bicycle Commuting on the Regular Amount of Physical Activity Performed

    , American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol: 49, Pages: 842-849, ISSN: 0749-3797

    IntroductionPhysical inactivity is a leading cause of death and disability globally. Active transportation such as bicycling may increase physical activity levels. It is currently uncertain whether a shift from motorized transport modes to bicycle commuting leads to increased physical activity overall or substitutes other forms of physical activity. The study aims to disentangle whether bicycle commuting adds to or replaces other physical activities by comparing the physical activity performed by bicycle and motorized commuters.MethodsPhysical activity, travel behavior, health status, sociodemographic, and built environment characteristics were assessed for 752 adults, between June 2011 and May 2012, in Barcelona, Spain. Statistical analyses, performed in 2013–2014, included linear, non-linear, and mixture models to estimate disparities and the dose–response relationship between physical activity duration and commute mode.ResultsRegular bicycle commuters traveled by bicycle an average of 3.1 (SD=2.5) hours in the previous week. Bicycle commuting contributed positively to physical activity duration across participants (p<0.05). It amounted to 2.1 (95% CI=0.84, 3.55) hours/week extra of physical activity for bicycle commuters versus motorized commuters. Among bicycle travelers, there was a positive dose–response relationship between bicycle commuting and physical activity duration, with an average extra physical activity duration of 0.5 (95% CI=0.4, 0.6) hours/week for every additional 1 hour/week of bicycle commuting.ConclusionsBicycle commuting likely adds to overall physical activity. The extra physical activity performed by bicycle commuters is undertaken as moderate physical activity and follows a sigmoidal dose–response relationship with bicycle duration.

  • Journal article
    Makinson K, Pearce D, Hodgson DA, Bentley MJ, Smith AM, Tranter M, Rose M, Ross N, Mowlem M, Parnell J, Siegert MJet al., 2015,

    Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling

    , Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 374, ISSN: 1471-2962

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets.

  • Journal article
    Blyth W, McCarthy R, Gross R, 2015,

    Financing the UK power sector: Is the money available?

    , ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 87, Pages: 607-622, ISSN: 0301-4215
  • Journal article
    Watson J, Gross R, Ketsopoulou I, 2015,

    Energy policy special issue: UK Energy Research Centre uncertainties project

    , ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 87, Pages: 604-606, ISSN: 0301-4215
  • Journal article
    Watson J, Gross R, Ketsopoulou I, Winskel Met al., 2015,

    The impact of uncertainties on the UK's medium-term climate change targets

    , ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 87, Pages: 685-695, ISSN: 0301-4215

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