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  • Journal article
    Tariq F, Yufit V, Eastwood DS, Merla Y, Biton M, Wu B, Chen Z, Freedman K, Offer GJ, Peled E, Lee PD, Golodnitsky D, Brandon NPet al., 2014,

    In-Operando X-ray Tomography Study of Lithiation Induced Delamination of Si Based Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    , Electrochemistry Letters, Vol: 3

    Silicon-Lithium based rechargeable batteries offer high gravimetric capacity. However cycle life and electrode microstructure failure mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we present an X-ray tomography method to investigate in-operando lithiation induced stress cracking leading to the delamination of a composite Si based electrode. Simultaneous voltage measurements show increased cell resistance correlating with severe delamination and microstructural changes. 3D analysis revealed 44.1% loss of the initial electrode-current collector area after 1 hour of operation at 2.4 mA/cm2 and a 21.2% increase in new anode surface area. The work represents a new basis for future investigation of Si based anodes.

  • Journal article
    Hill J, Popova EE, Ham DA, Piggott MD, Srokosz Met al., 2014,

    Adapting to life: ocean biogeochemical modelling and adaptive remeshing

    , Ocean Science, Vol: 10, Pages: 323-343

    An outstanding problem in biogeochemical modelling of the ocean is that many of the key processes occur intermittently at small scales, such as the sub-mesoscale, that are not well represented in global ocean models. This is partly due to their failure to resolve sub-mesoscale phenomena, which play a significant role in vertical nutrient supply. Simply increasing the resolution of the models may be an inefficient computational solution to this problem. An approach based on recent advances in adaptive mesh computational techniques may offer an alternative. Here the first steps in such an approach are described, using the example of a simple vertical column (quasi-1-D) ocean biogeochemical model. We present a novel method of simulating ocean biogeochemical behaviour on a vertically adaptive computational mesh, where the mesh changes in response to the biogeochemical and physical state of the system throughout the simulation. We show that the model reproduces the general physical and biological behaviour at three ocean stations (India, Papa and Bermuda) as compared to a high-resolution fixed mesh simulation and to observations. The use of an adaptive mesh does not increase the computational error, but reduces the number of mesh elements by a factor of 2–3. Unlike previous work the adaptivity metric used is flexible and we show that capturing the physical behaviour of the model is paramount to achieving a reasonable solution. Adding biological quantities to the adaptivity metric further refines the solution. We then show the potential of this method in two case studies where we change the adaptivity metric used to determine the varying mesh sizes in order to capture the dynamics of chlorophyll at Bermuda and sinking detritus at Papa. We therefore demonstrate that adaptive meshes may provide a suitable numerical technique for simulating seasonal or transient biogeochemical behaviour at high vertical resolution whilst minimising the number of elements in the mesh. M

  • Journal article
    Kokoni S, Skea J, 2014,

    Input-output and life-cycle emissions accounting: applications in the real world

    , CLIMATE POLICY, Vol: 14, Pages: 372-396, ISSN: 1469-3062
  • Journal article
    Chakrabarti MH, Brandon NP, Hajimolana SA, Tariq E, Yufit V, Hashim MA, Hussain MA, Low CTJ, Aravind PVet al., 2014,

    Application of carbon materials in redox flow batteries

    , JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 253, Pages: 150-166, ISSN: 0378-7753
  • Journal article
    Madani K, Read L, Shalikarian L, 2014,

    Voting Under Uncertainty: A Stochastic Framework for Analyzing Group Decision Making Problems

    , WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, Vol: 28, Pages: 1839-1856, ISSN: 0920-4741
  • Journal article
    Beelen R, Stafoggia M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, Xun WW, Katsouyanni K, Dimakopoulou K, Brunekreef B, Weinmayr G, Hoffmann B, Wolf K, Samoli E, Houthuijs D, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Oudin A, Forsberg B, Olsson D, Salomaa V, Lanki T, Yli-Tuomi T, Oftedal B, Aamodt G, Nafstad P, De Faire U, Pedersen NL, Ostenson C-G, Fratiglioni L, Penell J, Korek M, Pyko A, Eriksen KT, Tjonneland A, Becker T, Eeftens M, Bots M, Meliefste K, Wang M, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Sugiri D, Kraemer U, Heinrich J, de Hoogh K, Key T, Peters A, Cyrys J, Concin H, Nagel G, Ineichen A, Schaffner E, Probst-Hensch N, Dratva J, Ducret-Stich R, Vilier A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Stempfelet M, Grioni S, Krogh V, Tsai M-Y, Marcon A, Ricceri F, Sacerdote C, Galassi C, Migliore E, Ranzi A, Cesaroni G, Badaloni C, Forastiere F, Tamayo I, Amiano P, Dorronsoro M, Katsoulis M, Trichopoulou A, Vineis P, Hoek Get al., 2014,

    Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality An Analysis of 22 European Cohorts

    , EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 25, Pages: 368-378, ISSN: 1044-3983
  • Journal article
    Pfenninger S, Hawkes A, Keirstead J, 2014,

    Energy systems modeling for twenty-first century energy challenges

    , RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS, Vol: 33, Pages: 74-86, ISSN: 1364-0321
  • Journal article
    Walker AP, Hanson PJ, De Kauwe MG, Medlyn BE, Zaehle S, Asao S, Dietze M, Hickler T, Huntingford C, Iversen CM, Jain A, Lomas M, Luo Y, McCarthy H, Parton WJ, Prentice IC, Thornton PE, Wang S, Wang Y-P, Warlind D, Weng E, Warren JM, Woodward FI, Oren R, Norby RJet al., 2014,

    Comprehensive ecosystem model-data synthesis using multiple data sets at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment experiments: Model performance at ambient CO2 concentration

    , Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol: 119, Pages: 937-964, ISSN: 2169-8961

    Free‐air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a remarkable wealth of data which can be used to evaluate and improve terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs). In the FACE model‐data synthesis project, 11 TEMs were applied to two decadelong FACE experiments in temperate forests of the southeastern U.S.—the evergreen Duke Forest and the deciduous Oak Ridge Forest. In this baseline paper, we demonstrate our approach to model‐data synthesis by evaluating the models' ability to reproduce observed net primary productivity (NPP), transpiration, and leaf area index (LAI) in ambient CO2 treatments. Model outputs were compared against observations using a range of goodness‐of‐fit statistics. Many models simulated annual NPP and transpiration within observed uncertainty. We demonstrate, however, that high goodness‐of‐fit values do not necessarily indicate a successful model, because simulation accuracy may be achieved through compensating biases in component variables. For example, transpiration accuracy was sometimes achieved with compensating biases in leaf area index and transpiration per unit leaf area. Our approach to model‐data synthesis therefore goes beyond goodness‐of‐fit to investigate the success of alternative representations of component processes. Here we demonstrate this approach by comparing competing model hypotheses determining peak LAI. Of three alternative hypotheses—(1) optimization to maximize carbon export, (2) increasing specific leaf area with canopy depth, and (3) the pipe model—the pipe model produced peak LAI closest to the observations. This example illustrates how data sets from intensive field experiments such as FACE can be used to reduce model uncertainty despite compensating biases by evaluating individual model assumptions.

  • Journal article
    Green R, Staffell I, Vasilakos N, 2014,

    Divide and Conquer? k-Means Clustering of Demand Data Allows Rapid and Accurate Simulations of the British Electricity System

    , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, Vol: 61, Pages: 251-260, ISSN: 0018-9391
  • Journal article
    Winskel M, Radcliffe J, Skea J, Wang Xet al., 2014,

    Remaking the UK's energy technology innovation system: From the margins to the mainstream

    , ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 68, Pages: 591-602, ISSN: 0301-4215
  • Journal article
    Zaehle S, Medlyn BE, De Kauwe MG, Walker AP, Dietze MC, Hickler T, Luo Y, Wang Y-P, El-Masri B, Thornton P, Jain A, Wang S, Warlind D, Weng E, Parton W, Iversen CM, Gallet-Budynek A, McCarthy H, Finzi AC, Hanson PJ, Prentice IC, Oren R, Norby RJet al., 2014,

    Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment studies

    , NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 202, Pages: 803-822, ISSN: 0028-646X
  • Journal article
    Pfeifer M, Lefebvre V, Gardner TA, Arroyo-Rodriguez V, Baeten L, Banks-Leite C, Barlow J, Betts MG, Brunet J, Cerezo A, Cisneros LM, Collard S, D'Cruze N, da Silva Motta C, Duguay S, Eggermont H, Eigenbrod F, Hadley AS, Hanson TR, Hawes JE, Scalley TH, Klingbeil BT, Kolb A, Kormann U, Kumar S, Lachat T, Lakeman Fraser P, Lantschner V, Laurance WF, Leal IR, Lens L, Marsh CJ, Medina-Rangel GF, Melles S, Mezger D, Oldekop JA, Overal WL, Owen C, Peres CA, Phalan B, Pidgeon AM, Pilia O, Possingham HP, Possingham ML, Raheem DC, Ribeiro DB, Ribeiro Neto JD, Robinson WD, Robinson R, Rytwinski T, Scherber C, Slade EM, Somarriba E, Stouffer PC, Struebig MJ, Tylianakis JM, Tscharntke T, Tyre AJ, Urbina-Cardona JN, Vasconcelos HL, Wearn O, Wells K, Willig MR, Wood E, Young RP, Bradley AV, Ewers RMet al., 2014,

    BIOFRAG - a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation

    , Ecology and Evolution, Vol: 4, Pages: 1524-1537, ISSN: 2045-7758
  • Journal article
    Saini PK, Romain C, Williams CK, 2014,

    Dinuclear metal catalysts: improved performance of heterodinuclear mixed catalysts for CO2-epoxide copolymerization

    , Chemical Communications, Vol: 50, Pages: 4164-4167, ISSN: 1364-548X

    Some of the most active catalysts for carbon dioxide and epoxide copolymerization are dinuclear metal complexes. Whilst efficient homodinuclear catalysts are known, until now heterodinuclear catalysts remain unreported. Here, a facile, in situ route to a catalyst system comprising a mixture of homo- and heteronuclear Zn–Mg complexes is presented. This catalyst system shows excellent polymerization control and exhibits significantly higher activity than the homodinuclear catalysts alone or in combination.

  • Journal article
    Few S, Frost JM, Kirkpatrick J, Nelson Jet al., 2014,

    Influence of Chemical Structure on the Charge Transfer State Spectrum of a Polymer:Fullerene Complex

    , JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, Vol: 118, Pages: 8253-8261, ISSN: 1932-7447
  • Journal article
    Aitken ARA, Young DA, Ferraccioli F, Betts PG, Greenbaum JS, Richter TG, Roberts JL, Blankenship DD, Siegert MJet al., 2014,

    The subglacial geology of Wilkes Land, East Antarctica

    , GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 41, Pages: 2390-2400, ISSN: 0094-8276
  • Journal article
    Ansell C, Brindley HE, Pradhan Y, Saunders Ret al., 2014,

    Mineral dust aerosol net direct radiative effect during GERBILS field campaign period derived from SEVIRI and GERB

    , JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, Vol: 119, Pages: 4070-4086, ISSN: 2169-897X
  • Journal article
    MacLachlan AJ, O'Mahony FTF, Sudlow AL, Hill MS, Molloy KC, Nelson J, Haque SAet al., 2014,

    Solution- Processed Mesoscopic Bi2S3: Polymer Photoactive Layers

    , CHEMPHYSCHEM, Vol: 15, Pages: 1019-1023, ISSN: 1439-4235
  • Journal article
    Wu B, Parkes MP, Yufit V, De Benedetti L, Veismann S, Wirsching C, Vesper F, Martinez-Botas RF, Marquis AJ, Offer GJ, Brandon NPet al., 2014,

    Design and testing of a 9.5 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell-supercapacitor passive hybrid system

    , International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

    The design and test of a 9.5 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell passively coupled with a 33 × 1500 F supercapacitor pack is presented. Experimental results showed that the system reduced dynamic loads on the fuel cell without the need for additional DC/DC converters. Fuel efficiency gains of approximately 5% were achieved by passive hybridisation in addition to addressing two main operational degradation mechanisms: no-load idling and rapid load cycling.Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy measurements indicated that the supercapacitor capacitance dropped with decreasing cell voltage and suggested that operation below 1.3 V is not recommended. Knee-frequency measurements suggested little benefit was gained in using passive systems with load cycles that have frequency components above 0.19 Hz. Analysis of system sizing suggested using the minimum number of supercapacitors to match the open circuit voltage of the fuel cell to maximise load buffering.

  • Journal article
    Chen L, Sharifzadeh M, Mac Dowell N, Welton T, Shah N, Hallett JPet al., 2014,

    Inexpensive ionic liquids: [HSO₄]¯-based solvent production at bulk scale

    , Green Chemistry, Vol: 16, Pages: 3098-3106, ISSN: 1744-1560

    Through more than two decades’ intensive research, ionic liquids (ILs) have exhibited significant potential in various areas of research at laboratory scales. This suggests that ILs-based industrial process development will attract increasing attention in the future. However, there is one core issue that stands in the way of commercialisation: the high cost of most laboratory-synthesized ILs will limit application to small-scale, specialized processes. In this work, we evaluate the economic feasibility of two ILs synthesized via acid–base neutralization using two scenarios for each: conventional and intensification processing. Based upon our initial models, we determined the cost price of each IL and compared the energy requirements of each process option. The cost prices of triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate and 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate are estimated as $1.24 kg−1 and $2.96–5.88 kg−1, respectively. This compares favourably with organic solvents such as acetone or ethyl acetate, which sell for $1.30–$1.40 kg−1. Moreover, the raw materials contribute the overwhelming majority of this cost and the intensified process using a compact plate reactor is more economical due to lower energy requirements. These results indicate that ionic liquids are not necessarily expensive, and therefore large-scale IL-based processes can become a commercial reality.

  • Journal article
    Ferrándiz-Mas V, Bond T, García-Alcocel E, Cheeseman CRet al., 2014,

    Lightweight mortars containing expanded polystyrene and paper sludge ash

    , Construction and Building Materials, Vol: 61, Pages: 285-292, ISSN: 0950-0618

    The objective of this research was to develop lightweight cement mortars with good thermal-insulation properties by incorporating expanded polystyrene (EPS) and paper sludge ash (PSA), both of which are problematic waste materials. The mortars formed had low thermal conductivity and low bulk density compared to control samples. Ground EPS produced lower thermal conductivity samples than powdered EPS. Resource efficient mortars containing up to 20% PSA, and 60% of EPS are considered suitable for use in rendering and plastering applications.

  • Journal article
    Deledalle F, Shakya Tuladhar P, Nelson J, Durrant JR, Kirchartz Tet al., 2014,

    Understanding the Apparent Charge Density Dependence of Mobility and Lifetime in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    , The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol: 118, Pages: 8837-8842, ISSN: 1932-7447
  • Journal article
    Burnett RT, Pope CA, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR, Smith KR, Balmes JR, Bruce NG, Kan H, Laden F, Pruess-Ustuen A, Turner MC, Gapstur SM, Diver WR, Cohen Aet al., 2014,

    An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

    , ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES, Vol: 122, Pages: 397-403, ISSN: 0091-6765
  • Journal article
    Rosenberg DE, Madani K, 2014,

    Water Resources Systems Analysis: A Bright Past and a Challenging but Promising Future

    , JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT, Vol: 140, Pages: 407-409, ISSN: 0733-9496
  • Journal article
    Tawfiq KM, Miller GJ, Al-Jeboori MJ, Fennell PS, Coles SJ, Tizzard GJ, Wilson C, Potgieter Het al., 2014,

    Comparison of the structural motifs and packing arrangements of six novel derivatives and one polymorph of 2-(1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine

    , ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION B-STRUCTURAL SCIENCE CRYSTAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS, Vol: 70, Pages: 379-389, ISSN: 0108-7681
  • Journal article
    Bennett JE, Blangiardo M, Fecht D, Elliott P, Ezzati Met al., 2014,

    Vulnerability to the mortality effects of warm temperature in the districts of England and Wales

    , Nature Climate Change, Vol: 4, Pages: 269-273, ISSN: 1758-678X

    Warm temperatures adversely affect disease occurrence and death, in extreme conditions as well as when the temperature changes are more modest1,2. Therefore climate change, which is expected to affect both average temperatures and temperature variability, is likely to impact health even in temperate climates. Climate change risk assessment is enriched if there is information on vulnerability and resilience to effects of temperature. Some studies have analysed socio-demographic characteristics that make individuals vulnerable to adverse effects of temperature1,2,3,4. Less is known about community-level vulnerability. We used geo-coded mortality and environmental data and Bayesian spatial methods to conduct a national small-area analysis of the mortality effects of warm temperature for all 376 districts in England and Wales. In the most vulnerable districts, those in London and south/southeast England, odds of dying from cardiorespiratory causes increased by more than 10% for 1 °C warmer temperature, compared with virtually no effect in the most resilient districts, which were in the far north. A 2 °C warmer summer may result in 1,552 (95% credible interval 1,307–1,762) additional deaths, about one-half of which would occur in 95 districts. The findings enable risk and adaptation analyses to incorporate local vulnerability to warm temperature and to quantify inequality in its effects.

  • Journal article
    Zulkafli Z, Buytaert W, Onof C, Manz B, Tarnavsky E, Lavado W, Guyot J-Let al., 2014,

    A Comparative Performance Analysis of TRMM 3B42 (TMPA) Versions 6 and 7 for Hydrological Applications over Andean-Amazon River Basins

    , JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, Vol: 15, Pages: 581-592, ISSN: 1525-755X
  • Journal article
    Melvin T, Staniforth A, Cotter C, 2014,

    A two-dimensional mixed finite-element pair on rectangles

    , Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol: 140, Pages: 930-942, ISSN: 0035-9009
  • Journal article
    Stoeckel M, Tesitelova T, Jersakova J, Bidartondo MI, Gebauer Get al., 2014,

    Carbon and nitrogen gain during the growth of orchid seedlings in nature

    , New Phytologist, Vol: 202, Pages: 606-615, ISSN: 1469-8137
  • Journal article
    Le Vine S, Latinopoulos C, Polak J, 2014,

    Establishing the linkages between online activity and car use: Evidence from a combined travel diary and online-activity pseudo-diary dataset

    , Transportation Research Record-Series
  • Journal article
    Noven RC, Veraart AED, Gandy A, 2014,

    A Levy-driven rainfall model with applications to futures pricing

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