BibTex format

author = {Stanley, E and Plant, J and Voulvoulis, N},
doi = {10.3934/environsci.2016.1.96},
journal = {AIMS Environmental Science},
pages = {96--114},
title = {Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer},
url = {},
volume = {3},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.
AU - Stanley,E
AU - Plant,J
AU - Voulvoulis,N
DO - 10.3934/environsci.2016.1.96
EP - 114
PY - 2016///
SN - 2372-0352
SP - 96
TI - Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer
T2 - AIMS Environmental Science
UR -
UR -
VL - 3
ER -