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  • Journal article
    Lee K, Tang M, Williams CK, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Carbohydrate derived copoly(lactide) as the compatibilizer for bacterial cellulose reinforced polylactide nanocomposites

    , Composites Science and Technology, Vol: 72, Pages: 1646-1650, ISSN: 0266-3538

    A novel, entirely bio-derived polylactide carbohydrate copolymer (RP1) is used as a compatibilizer, to produce bacterial cellulose (BC) poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties. Contact angle measurements of RP1 droplets on single BC nanofibres proved that it has a higher affinity towards BC than PLLA. RP1 has a comparable Young’s modulus, but lower tensile strength, than PLLA. When RP1 was blended with PLLA at a concentration of 5 wt%, the tensile modulus and strength of the resulting polymer blend decreased from 4.08 GPa and 63.1, respectively, for PLLA to 3.75 GPa and 56.1 MPa. A composite of BC and PLLA (with 5 wt% RP1 and 5 wt% BC) has a higher Young’s modulus and tensile strength, compared to either pure PLLA or PLLA–BC nanocomposites.

  • Journal article
    Buchard A, Jutz F, Kember MR, White AJP, Rzepa HS, Williams CKet al., 2012,

    Experimental and Computational Investigation of the Mechanism of Carbon Dioxide/Cyclohexene Oxide Copolymerization Using a Dizinc Catalyst

    , MACROMOLECULES, Vol: 45, Pages: 6781-6795, ISSN: 0024-9297
  • Conference paper
    Napp T, Gambhir A, Muuls M, 2012,

    Effectiveness of policies in enabling energy efficient technologies in the UK industrial sector

    , eceee 2012 Summer Study on energy efficiency in industry
  • Journal article
    Ramesh NI, Onof C, Xie D, 2012,

    Doubly stochastic Poisson process models for precipitation at fine time-scales

    , ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES, Vol: 45, Pages: 58-64, ISSN: 0309-1708
  • Journal article
    Chon H-S, Ohandja D-G, Voulvoulis N, 2012,

    Assessing the Relative Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plants to Levels of Metals in Receiving Waters for Catchment Management

    , WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, Vol: 223, Pages: 3987-4006, ISSN: 0049-6979
  • Journal article
    Lekkas DF, Pechlivanidis IG, Onof C, 2012,

    Foreword: Water Resources, Hydrology and Hydraulics: Bringing together recent developments in technology and applications

    , GLOBAL NEST JOURNAL, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1790-7632
  • Journal article
    Demetriou CA, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Loft S, Moller P, Vermeulen R, Palli D, Chadeau-Hyam M, Xun WW, Vineis Pet al., 2012,

    Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer: a systematic review

    , OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, Vol: 69, Pages: 619-627, ISSN: 1351-0711
  • Journal article
    Corcoran P, Jacobson DJ, Bidartondo MI, Hickey PC, Kerekes JF, Taylor JW, Johannesson Het al., 2012,

    Quantifying functional heterothallism in the pseudohomothallic ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma

    , FUNGAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 116, Pages: 962-975, ISSN: 1878-6146
  • Journal article
    Candelise C, Winskel M, Gross R, 2012,

    Implications for CdTe and CIGS technologies production costs of indium and tellurium scarcity

    , Progress in Photovoltaics: research and applications, Vol: 20, Pages: 816-831
  • Journal article
    Bale CSE, Foxon TJ, Hannon MJ, Gale WFet al., 2012,

    Making the case for strategic energy planning within local authorities: a study from the city of Leeds

    , Energy Policy, Vol: 48, Pages: 242-251
  • Book chapter
    Slade R, 2012,

    Cellulosic ethanol in Northern Sweden - a case study of economic performance and GHG emissions

    , Biorefinery: from biomass to chemicals and fuels, Editors: Aresta, Dibenedetto, Dumeignil, Publisher: Walter de Gruyter, Pages: 363-376, ISBN: 9783110260236
  • Journal article
    Carboni E, Thomas G, Sayer A, Siddans R, Poulsen C, Grainger R, Ahn C, Antoine D, Bevan S, Braak R, Brindley H, DeSouza-Machado S, Deuze J, Diner D, Ducos F, Grey W, Hsu C, Kalashnikova O, Kahn R, North P, Salustro C, Smith A, Tanre D, Torres O, Veihelmann Bet al., 2012,

    Intercomparison of desert dust optical depth from satellite measurements

    , Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol: 5, Pages: 1973-2002

    This work provides a comparison of satellite retrievals of Saharan desert dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) during a strong dust event through March 2006. In this event, a large dust plume was transported over desert, vegetated, and ocean surfaces. The aim is to identify the differences between current datasets. The satellite instruments considered are AATSR, AIRS, MERIS, MISR, MODIS, OMI, POLDER, and SEVIRI. An interesting aspect is that the different algorithms make use of different instrument characteristics to obtain retrievals over bright surfaces. These include multi-angle approaches (MISR, AATSR), polarisation measurements (POLDER), single-view approaches using solar wavelengths (OMI, MODIS), and the thermal infrared spectral region (SEVIRI, AIRS). Differences between instruments, together with the comparison of different retrieval algorithms applied to measurements from the same instrument, provide a unique insight into the performance and characteristics of the various techniques employed. As well as the intercomparison between different satellite products, the AODs have also been compared to co-located AERONET data. Despite the fact that the agreement between satellite and AERONET AODs is reasonably good for all of the datasets, there are significant differences between them when compared to each other, especially over land. These differences are partially due to differences in the algorithms, such as assumptions about aerosol model and surface properties. However, in this comparison of spatially and temporally averaged data, it is important to note that differences in sampling, related to the actual footprint of each instrument on the heterogeneous aerosol field, cloud identification and the quality control flags of each dataset can be an important issue.

  • Journal article
    Morfopoulos C, Foster PN, Friedlingstein P, Bousquet P, Prentice ICet al., 2012,

    A global model for the uptake of atmospheric hydrogen by soils

  • Journal article
    Lira PK, Tambosi LR, Ewers RM, Metzger JPet al., 2012,

    Land-use and land-cover change in Atlantic Forest landscapes

    , FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, Vol: 278, Pages: 80-89, ISSN: 0378-1127
  • Journal article
    Dossena M, Yvon-Durocher G, Grey J, Montoya JM, Perkins DM, Trimmer M, Woodward Get al., 2012,

    Warming alters community size structure and ecosystem functioning

    , Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol: 279, Pages: 3011-3019, ISSN: 0962-8452

    <jats:p>Global warming can affect all levels of biological complexity, though we currently understand least about its potential impact on communities and ecosystems. At the ecosystem level, warming has the capacity to alter the structure of communities and the rates of key ecosystem processes they mediate. Here we assessed the effects of a 4°C rise in temperature on the size structure and taxonomic composition of benthic communities in aquatic mesocosms, and the rates of detrital decomposition they mediated. Warming had no effect on biodiversity, but altered community size structure in two ways. In spring, warmer systems exhibited steeper size spectra driven by declines in total community biomass and the proportion of large organisms. By contrast, in autumn, warmer systems had shallower size spectra driven by elevated total community biomass and a greater proportion of large organisms. Community-level shifts were mirrored by changes in decomposition rates. Temperature-corrected microbial and macrofaunal decomposition rates reflected the shifts in community structure and were strongly correlated with biomass across mesocosms. Our study demonstrates that the 4°C rise in temperature expected by the end of the century has the potential to alter the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems profoundly, as well as the intimate linkages between these levels of ecological organization.</jats:p>

  • Journal article
    Pross J, Contreras L, Bijl PK, Greenwood DR, Bohaty SM, Schouten S, Bendle JA, Roehl U, Tauxe L, Raine JI, Huck CE, van de Flierdt T, Jamieson SSR, Stickley CE, van de Schootbrugge B, Escutia C, Brinkhuis H, Dotti CE, Klaus A, Fehr A, Williams T, Bendle JAP, Carr SA, Dunbar RB, Gonzalez JJ, Hayden TG, Iwai M, Jimenez-Espejo FJ, Katsuki K, Kong GS, McKay RM, Nakai M, Olney MP, Passchier S, Pekar SF, Pross J, Riesselman CR, Rohl U, Sakai T, Shrivastava PK, Stickley CE, Sugisaki S, Tauxe L, Tuo S, van de Flierdt T, Welsh K, Yamane Met al., 2012,

    Persistent near-tropical warmth on the Antarctic continent during the early Eocene epoch

    , NATURE, Vol: 488, Pages: 73-77, ISSN: 0028-0836
  • Journal article
    Tscharntke T, Tylianakis JM, Rand TA, Didham RK, Fahrig L, Peter B, Bengtsson J, Clough Y, Crist TO, Dormann CF, Ewers RM, Fruend J, Holt RD, Holzschuh A, Klein AM, Kleijn D, Kremen C, Landis DA, Laurance W, Lindenmayer D, Scherber C, Sodhi N, Steffan-Dewenter I, Thies C, van der Putten WH, Westphal Cet al., 2012,

    Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses

    , BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Vol: 87, Pages: 661-685, ISSN: 1464-7931
  • Journal article
    Skea J, 2012,

    Research and evidence needs for decarbonisation in the built environment: a UK case study

    , BUILDING RESEARCH AND INFORMATION, Vol: 40, Pages: 432-445, ISSN: 0961-3218
  • Journal article
    Parham PE, Pople D, Christiansen-Jucht C, Lindsay S, Hinsley W, Michael Eet al., 2012,

    Modelling the Role of Environmental Variables on the Population Dynamics of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    , Malaria Journal, Vol: 11: 271
  • Journal article
    Chon HS, Ohandja D-G, Voulvoulis N, 2012,

    The role of sediments as a source of metals in river catchments.

    , Chemosphere, Vol: 88, Pages: 1250-1256

    Aquatic sediments are a known source of pollutants, but their impact on the quality of overlying waters is not easily quantified. Sediments are generally considered to behave as a sink for pollutants such as heavy metals in the aquatic environment, frequently acting as a source for their presence in waters, with implications for catchment management. This study aimed to calculate the contribution of sediments to metal levels in overlying waters, helping understand their role as a source of metals in river catchments. An aquivalence mass balance approach was modified to take into account both natural and anthropogenic influences and applied to assess sediment contribution in a reach of the River Yare in the UK. The rates of total metal transport from sediments to overlying waters were estimated to be 29.89gd(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 1633.39gd(-1) for lead (Pb), 8.29gd(-1) for mercury (Hg) and 357.56gd(-1) for nickel (Ni). The results from the case study demonstrated that sediments could be a significant source of metal emissions in river catchments. The calculations proposed in the paper could be useful in developing strategies for sediment management, not only to improve and/or maintain quality of sediments but also to inform the selection of measures of pollution control for the catchment.

  • Journal article
    Rodríguez J-P, McIntyre N, Díaz-Granados2 M, Maksimovic Cet al., 2012,

    A database and model to support proactive management of sediment-related sewer blockages

    Due to increasing customer and political pressures, and more stringent environmental regulations, sediment and other blockage issues are now a high priority when assessing sewer system operational performance. Blockages caused by sediment deposits reduce sewer system reliability and demand remedial action at considerable operational cost. Consequently, procedures are required for identifying which parts of the sewer system are in most need of proactive removal of sediments. This paper presents an exceptionally long (7.5 years) and spatially detailed (9,658 grid squares – 0.03 km2 each – covering a population of nearly 7.5 million) data set obtained from a customer complaints database in Bogotá (Colombia). The sediment-related blockage data are modelled using homogeneous and non-homogeneous Poisson process models. In most of the analysed areas the inter-arrival time between blockages can be represented by the homogeneous process, but there are a considerable number of areas (up to 34%) for which there is strong evidence of non-stationarity. In most of these cases, the mean blockage rate increases over time, signifying a continual deterioration of the system despite repairs, this being particularly marked for pipe and gully pot related blockages. The physical properties of the system (mean pipe slope, diameter and pipe length) have a clear but weak influence on observed blockage rates. The Bogotá case study illustrates the potential value of customer complaints databases and formal analysis frameworks for proactive sewerage maintenance scheduling in large cities.

  • Journal article
    Yvon-Durocher G, Caffrey JM, Cescatti A, Dossena M, del Giorgio P, Gasol JM, Montoya JM, Pumpanen J, Staehr PA, Trimmer M, Woodward G, Allen APet al., 2012,

    Reconciling the temperature dependence of respiration across timescales and ecosystem types.

    , Nature, Vol: 487, Pages: 472-476

    Ecosystem respiration is the biotic conversion of organic carbon to carbon dioxide by all of the organisms in an ecosystem, including both consumers and primary producers. Respiration exhibits an exponential temperature dependence at the subcellular and individual levels, but at the ecosystem level respiration can be modified by many variables including community abundance and biomass, which vary substantially among ecosystems. Despite its importance for predicting the responses of the biosphere to climate change, it is as yet unknown whether the temperature dependence of ecosystem respiration varies systematically between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here we use the largest database of respiratory measurements yet compiled to show that the sensitivity of ecosystem respiration to seasonal changes in temperature is remarkably similar for diverse environments encompassing lakes, rivers, estuaries, the open ocean and forested and non-forested terrestrial ecosystems, with an average activation energy similar to that of the respiratory complex (approximately 0.65 electronvolts (eV)). By contrast, annual ecosystem respiration shows a substantially greater temperature dependence across aquatic (approximately 0.65 eV) versus terrestrial ecosystems (approximately 0.32 eV) that span broad geographic gradients in temperature. Using a model derived from metabolic theory, these findings can be reconciled by similarities in the biochemical kinetics of metabolism at the subcellular level, and fundamental differences in the importance of other variables besides temperature—such as primary productivity and allochthonous carbon inputs—on the structure of aquatic and terrestrial biota at the community level.

  • Journal article
    Green RJ, 2012,

    How Denmark Manages its Wind Power

    , IAEE Energy Forum, Vol: 21, Pages: 9-11
  • Journal article
    Gong W, Faist MA, Ekins-Daukes NJ, Xu Z, Bradley DDC, Nelson J, Kirchartz Tet al., 2012,

    Influence of energetic disorder on electroluminescence emission in polymer:fullerene solar cells

    , PHYSICAL REVIEW B, Vol: 86, ISSN: 1098-0121
  • Journal article
    Wearn OR, Reuman DC, Ewers RM, 2012,

    Extinction Debt and Windows of Conservation Opportunity in the Brazilian Amazon

    , SCIENCE, Vol: 337, Pages: 228-232, ISSN: 0036-8075
  • Conference paper
    McIntyre N, Ballard C, Bulygina N, Carroll Z, Cluckie I, Dangerfield S, Ewen J, Geris J, Henshaw A, Jackson B, Marshall M, Pagella T, Park JS, Reynolds B, O’Connell E, O’Donnell G, Sinclair F, Solloway I, Thorne C, Wheater Het al., 2012,

    The potential for reducing flood risk through changes to rural land management: outcomes from the Flood Risk Management Research Consortium

  • Conference paper
    Bakopoulou C, Bulygina N, Butler A, McIntyre Net al., 2012,

    Sensitivity Analysis and Parameter Identifiability of the Land Surface Model JULES at the point scale in permeable catchments

  • Conference paper
    Almeida S, Bulygina N, McIntyre N, Wagener T, Buytaert Wet al., 2012,

    Predicting flows in ungauged catchments using correlated information sources

    , BHS International Hydrology Symposium
  • Journal article
    Llovell F, Marcos RM, MacDowell N, Vega LFet al., 2012,

    Modeling the Absorption of Weak Electrolytes and Acid Gases with Ionic Liquids Using the Soft-SAFT Approach

    , JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, Vol: 116, Pages: 7709-7718, ISSN: 1520-6106
  • Journal article
    Murray SJ, Foster PN, Prentice IC, 2012,

    Future global water resources with respect to climate change and water withdrawals as estimated by a dynamic global vegetation model

    , JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY, Vol: 448, Pages: 14-29, ISSN: 0022-1694

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