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  • Journal article
    van de Flierdt T, Pahnke K, Amakawa H, Andersson P, Basak C, Coles B, Colin C, Crocket K, Frank M, Frank N, Goldstein SL, Goswami V, Haley BA, Hathorne EC, Hemming SR, Henderson GM, Jeandel C, Jones K, Kreissig K, Lacan F, Lambelet M, Martin EE, Newkirk DR, Obata H, Pena L, Piotrowski AM, Pradoux C, Scher HD, Schoberg H, Singh SK, Stichel T, Tazoe H, Vance D, Yang Jet al., 2012,

    GEOTRACES intercalibration of neodymium isotopes and rare earth element concentrations in seawater and suspended particles. Part 1: reproducibility of results for the international intercomparison

    , LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY-METHODS, Vol: 10, Pages: 234-251, ISSN: 1541-5856
  • Journal article
    Keirstead J, Jennings M, Sivakumar A, 2012,

    A review of urban energy system models: approaches, challenges and opportunities

    , Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol: 6, Pages: 3847-3866

    Energy use in cities has attracted signi cant research in recent years. However such a broad topic inevitably results in number of alternative interpretations of the problem domain and the modelling tools used in its study. This paper seeks to pull together these strands by proposing a theoretical de nition of an urban energy system model and then evaluating the state of current practice. Drawing on a review of 219 papers, ve key areas of practice were identi ed { technology design, building design, urban climate, systems design, and policy assessment - each with distinct and incomplete interpretations of the problem domain. We also highlight a sixth fi eld, land use and transportation modelling, which has direct relevance to the use of energy in cities but has been somewhat overlooked by the literature to date. Despite their diversity, these approaches to urban energy system modellingshare four common challenges in understanding model complexity, data quality and uncertainty, model integration, and policy relevance. We then examine the opportunities for improving current practice in urban energy systems modelling, focusing on the potential of sensitivity analysis and cloud computing,data collection and integration techniques and standards, and theuse of activity-based modelling as an integrating framework. The results indicate that there is signi cant potential for urban energy systems modelling to move beyond single disciplinary approaches towards a sophisticated integratedperspective that more fully captures the theoretical complexity of urban energy systems.

  • Journal article
    Marshall DP, Maddison JR, Berloff PS, 2012,

    A Framework for Parameterizing Eddy Potential Vorticity Fluxes

    , JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, Vol: 42, Pages: 539-557, ISSN: 0022-3670
  • Conference paper
    Keirstead JE, Samsatli NJ, Pantaleo AM, Shah Net al., 2012,

    Evaluating biomass energy strategies for a UK eco-town with an MILP optimization model

    , Pages: 306-316

    Recent years have shown a marked interest in the construction of eco-towns, showcase developments intended to demonstrate the best in ecologically-sensitive and energy-efficient construction. This paper examines one such development in the UK and considers the role of biomass energy systems. We present an integrated resource modelling framework that identifies an optimized low-cost energy supply system including the choice of conversion technologies, fuel sources, and distribution networks. Our analysis shows that strategies based on imported wood chips, rather than locally converted forestry residues, burned in a mix of ICE and ORC combined heat and power facilities offer the most promise. While there are uncertainties surrounding the precise environmental impacts of these solutions, it is clear that such biomass systems can help eco-towns to meet their target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Journal article
    Roy I, Haigh JD, 2012,

    Solar Cycle Signals in the Pacific and the Issue of Timings

    , JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, Vol: 69, Pages: 1446-1451, ISSN: 0022-4928
  • Journal article
    Dai J, Wang C, Shang C, Graham N, Chen G-Het al., 2012,

    Comparison of the cytotoxic responses of <i>Escherichia coli</i> (<i>E</i>. <i>coli</i>) AMC 198 to different fullerene suspensions (<i>n</i>C<sub>60</sub>)

    , CHEMOSPHERE, Vol: 87, Pages: 362-368, ISSN: 0045-6535
  • Journal article
    Sondergaard RR, Makris T, Lianos P, Manor A, Katz EA, Gong W, Tuladhar SM, Nelson J, Toumi R, Sommeling P, Veenstra SC, Rivaton A, Dupuis A, Teran-Escobar G, Lira-Cantu M, Sapkota SB, Zimmermann B, Wuerfel U, Matzarakis A, Krebs FCet al., 2012,

    The use of polyurethane as encapsulating method for polymer solar cells-An inter laboratory study on outdoor stability in 8 countries

    , SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, Vol: 99, Pages: 292-300, ISSN: 0927-0248
  • Conference paper
    Naro YR, Haaf MP, Williams CK, Bakewell CMet al., 2012,

    Zinc quinolide catalysts for the stereoselective polymerization of lactide

    , 11th International Biorelated Polymer Symposium / 243rd National Spring Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, ISSN: 0065-7727
  • Conference paper
    Hubbard SM, Haaf MP, Williams CK, Bakewell CMet al., 2012,

    Isotactic polylactic acid (PLA) formation with chiral aluminum hydroxyquinolate catalysts

    , 11th International Biorelated Polymer Symposium / 243rd National Spring Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, ISSN: 0065-7727
  • Report
    Brown TA, Gambhir A, Florin N, Fennell PSet al., 2012,

    Reducing CO2 emissions from heavy industry: a review of technologies and considerations for policy makers

  • Journal article
    Emmott CJM, Urbina A, Nelson J, 2012,

    Environmental and economic assessment of ITO-free electrodes for organic solar cells

    , Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol: 97, Pages: 14-21, ISSN: 0927-0248
  • Journal article
    Didham RK, Kapos V, Ewers RM, 2012,

    Rethinking the conceptual foundations of habitat fragmentation research

    , OIKOS, Vol: 121, Pages: 161-170, ISSN: 0030-1299
  • Journal article
    Horie M, Kettle J, Yu C-Y, Majewski LA, Chang S-W, Kirkpatrick J, Tuladhar SM, Nelson J, Saunders BR, Turner MLet al., 2012,

    Cyclopentadithiophene-benzothiadiazole oligomers and polymers; synthesis, characterisation, field-effect transistor and photovoltaic characteristics

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, Vol: 22, Pages: 381-389, ISSN: 0959-9428
  • Journal article
    Faist MA, Kirchartz T, Gong W, Ashraf RS, McCulloch I, de Mello JC, Ekins-Daukes NJ, Bradley DDC, Nelson Jet al., 2012,

    Competition between the Charge Transfer State and the Singlet States of Donor or Acceptor Limiting the Efficiency in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells

    , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 134, Pages: 685-692, ISSN: 0002-7863
  • Journal article
    Buytaert W, 2012,

    Assessment of impacts of climate change on mountain hydrology: Development methodology based on situation-th example of the Peruvian Andes (Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Mountain Hydrology: Development of a Methodology Through a Case Study in the Andes of Peru)

    , Mountain Research and Development, Vol: 32, Pages: 143-144, ISSN: 0276-4741
  • Conference paper
    Zolgafhari A, Sivakumar A, Polak JW, 2012,

    Choice set pruning in residential location choice modelling: a comparison of sampling and choice set generation approaches in greater London

    , 43rd Annual Conference of the Universities-Transport-Studies-Group (UTSG), Publisher: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, Pages: 87-106, ISSN: 0308-1060

    The discrete choice analysis of residential location choice forms an important part of land use-transport modelling systems but gives rise to a number of significant modelling

  • Journal article
    Dhanirama D, Gronow J, Voulvoulis N, 2012,

    Cosmetics as a potential source of environmental contamination in the UK

    , Environmental Technology, Vol: 33, Pages: 1597-1608, ISSN: 0959-3330
  • Journal article
    Xia R, Al-Hashimi M, Tsoi WC, Heeney M, Bradley DDC, Nelson Jet al., 2012,

    Fused pyrrolo[3,2-<i>d</i>:4,5-<i>d</i>′]bisthiazole-containing polymers for using in high-performance organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    , SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, Vol: 96, Pages: 112-116, ISSN: 0927-0248
  • Journal article
    Flatt RJ, Roussel N, Cheeseman CR, 2012,

    Concrete: An eco material that needs to be improved

    , Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol: 32, Pages: 2787-2798, ISSN: 1873-619X

    Concrete is the largest volume material used by man and is irreplaceable for innumerable large infrastructure developments. From the point of view of natural resources, ecology and economy, it is virtually impossible to imagine substituting concrete by any other material. However, because of the large volumes used, its total energy and CO2 footprint is important. This material therefore needs to be improved and small steps can have a big impact, once again because of the large volumes involved. This review paper examines some of the routes that may be followed to further improve the environmental performance of concrete.

  • Journal article
    Hill J, Piggott MD, Ham DA, Popova EE, Srokosz MA, Hill J, Piggott M, Ham D, Popova E, Srokosz M, Hill J, Ham DA, Piggott MD, Popova EE, Srokosz MAet al., 2012,

    On the performance of a generic length scale turbulence model within an adaptive finite element ocean model

    , Ocean Modelling, Vol: 56, Pages: 1-15

    Research into the use of unstructured mesh methods for ocean modelling has been growing steadily in the last few years. One advantage of using unstructured meshes is that one can concentrate resolution where it is needed. In addition, dynamic adaptive mesh optimisation (DAMO) strategies allow resolution to be concentrated when this is required. Despite the advantage that DAMO gives in terms of improving the spatial resolution where and when required, small-scale turbulence in the oceans still requires parameterisation. A two-equation, generic length scale (GLS) turbulence model (one equation for turbulent kinetic energy and another for a generic turbulence length-scale quantity) adds this parameterisation and can be used in conjunction with adaptive mesh techniques. In this paper, an implementation of the GLS turbulence parameterisation is detailed in a non-hydrostatic, finite-element, unstructured mesh ocean model, Fluidity-ICOM. The implementation is validated by comparing to both a laboratory-scale experiment and real-world observations, on both fixed and adaptive meshes. The model performs well, matching laboratory and observed data, with resolution being adjusted as necessary by DAMO. Flexibility in the prognostic fields used to construct the error metric used in DAMO is required to ensure best performance. Moreover, the adaptive mesh models perform as well as fixed mesh models in terms of root mean square error to observation or theoretical mixed layer depths, but uses fewer elements and hence has a reduced computational cost.

  • Journal article
    Wang L, Ochoa-Rodriguez S, Simoes N, Onof C, Maksimović Čet al., 2012,

    Radar-raingauge data combination techniques: a revision and analysis of their suitability for urban hydrology

  • Journal article
    Chaudry M, Skea J, Wang X, Jenkins Net al., 2012,

    Modelling UK energy system response to natural gas supply infrastructure failures

  • Journal article
    Sivakumar A, Keirstead J, Polak JW, 2012,

    Integrated Modelling of the Demand & Supply Vectors in Urban Energy Systems: Conceptual and Modelling Frameworks for the Development of a New Toolkit

    , Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering

    This paper presents the conceptual and modelling frameworks underlying the development of SynCity, an urban systems modelling tool developed as part of the BP-sponsored Urban Energy Systems (UES) project at Imperial College London. SynCity, a hierarchical model system developed in Java, comprises four layers – a spatial layout model, an agent-based microsimulation model of urban activities (AMMUA), a resource flow and conversion/network optimisation model; and an urban energy service networks model. The AMMUA comprises three inter-related modules -- an activity travel demand model, an urban freight logistics component, and a land use module – and simulates a variety of agents including individuals, households, businesses, and industries. While the spatial layout and resource flow models are optimization models aimed at producing normative and potentially optimal solutions, the AMMUA is a descriptive model that aims to predict realistic patterns of agent behaviour. This combination forms a novel approach to modelling urban energy systems which is, to the best of our knowledge, among the first of its kind (this approach has some precedent in continuous equilibrium network design models). The complexity of integrated systems modelling does not typically allow for normative models and our approach conceptually overcomes the difficulty, thus simultaneously serving as a descriptor of behaviour and a design tool. The implementation of SynCity described in this paper is not only the first empirical application of an activity-based travel demand system in the UK but goes further to tie activity and travel demand patterns to resource consumption and energy demand. More importantly, the research breaks new ground in the way that transport demand is conceptualised – as part of a wider system of interactive social and economic relationships that are examined both from a normative and descriptive perspective.

  • Journal article
    Hu G, Sivakumar A, Polak JW, 2012,

    Modelling travellers’ risky choice in a revealed preference context: A comparison of EUT and non-EUT approaches

    , Transportation

    Recent work on risky choice modelling has sought to address the shortcomings of expected utility theory (EUT) by using non-expected utility theoretic (non-EUT) approaches. However, to date these approaches have been merely tested on stated choice data which is flexible and cheap. In this study, we empirically investigate the feasibility and validity of non-EUT approaches in a revealed preference (RP) context in which travel time distribution is extracted from observed historical travel time data, and subsequently present systematic comparisons between EUT, weighted utility theory (WUT), rank-dependent expected utility theory (RDT), and prospect theory (PT). The empirical evidence indicates that each non-EUT model has important behavioural insights to offer, moreover, EUT as well as non-EUT models can be applied to the RP context. However, the EUT and non-EUT model fits are generally similar with only PT providing a marginally improved model fit over EUT. The key findings presented in this study reinforce the importance of exploring non-EUT models within a revealed preference context before they can be applied reliably to modelling risky choices in the real world.

  • Journal article
    Zolfaghari A, Sivakumar A, Polak JW, 2012,

    Choice set pruning in residentiallocation choice modelling: acomparison of sampling and choiceset generation approaches in greaterLondon

    , Transportation Planning and Technology, Vol: 1, Pages: 87-106

    The discrete choice analysis of residential location choice forms an important part of land use-transport modelling systems but gives rise to a number of significant modelling challenges, one of which is the choice set formation problem. A number of alternative approaches exist to addressing the choice set formation problem,but to the best of our knowledge, there have been no efforts to empirically compare their performance using real choice data. In this paper, we propose to address this gap by examining the performance of several choice set formation methods within the context of residential location choice in London. The paperpresents a brief review of the relevant theoretical and empirical literature on thetreatment of the choice set formation problem in the context of spatial choice and sets out the characteristics of the specific modelling approaches implemented in the empirical research. In particular, we compare a recently proposed hazard-based screening model with more conventional pure statistical treatments. Theempirical research uses a specially constructed data-set on residential location choice, developed by the authors for the Greater London area, which draws on information from a number of separate data sources (including revealed preference data from the London Area Travel Survey). The alternative choice set formation approaches are assessed in terms of their prediction performance on a hold-out validation sub-sample and also in terms of estimated modelparameters.

  • Journal article
    Lutz T, MacLachlan A, Sudlow A, Nelson J, Hill MS, Molloy KC, Haque SAet al., 2012,

    Thermal decomposition of solution processable metal xanthates on mesoporous titanium dioxide films: a new route to quantum-dot sensitised heterojunctions

    , PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 14, Pages: 16192-16196, ISSN: 1463-9076
  • Journal article
    Lira PK, Ewers RM, Banks-Leite C, Pardini R, Metzger JPet al., 2012,

    Evaluating the legacy of landscape history: extinction debt and species credit in bird and small mammal assemblages in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    , Journal of Applied Ecology, Pages: 1325-1333
  • Journal article
    Niedermeyer H, Hallett JP, Villar-Garcia IJ, Hunt PA, Welton Tet al., 2012,

    Mixtures of ionic liquids

    , CHEMICAL SOCIETY REVIEWS, Vol: 41, Pages: 7780-7802, ISSN: 0306-0012
  • Journal article
    Hadden R, Alkatib A, Rein G, Torero Jet al., 2012,

    Radiant Ignition of Polyurethane Foam: The Effect of Sample Size

    , Fire Technology, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 0015-2684
  • Journal article
    Banks-Leite C, Ewers RM, Metzger JP, 2012,

    Unravelling the drivers of community dissimilarity and species extinction in fragmented landscapes

    , ECOLOGY, Vol: 93, Pages: 2560-2569

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